Monday, September 30, 2019

Hiv Voluntary Counseling and Testing

Cyber-VCT Program The 2010 UNAIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic states that based on the 2009 data, 33. 3 million people are living with HIV worldwide and Sub-Saharan Africa makes up 68% of the global total with 22. 5 million people living with HIV. 1 In an effort to address this epidemic, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) programs have been implemented in many of rural and remote areas. VCT serves as the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support by allowing people to learn their HIV status.According to World Health Organization (WHO), knowledge of one’s HIV status benefits the individuals, community, and population through awareness and education. 2 Therefore, there have been great efforts to expand VCT services since inception over 20 years ago. Unfortunately, global participation remains low, especially in the remote areas. 3 Studies show that there are various reasons why people do not participate. Some of the main reasons are stigma, lack of awarene ss, lack of access, cost of the test, and test-related fears. Several VCT models have been implemented to address these concerns but research suggests that further work needs to be done. Organic Health Response (OHR) has piloted an innovative Cyber-VCT Program in Mfangano Island by using technology to attract residents to participate. The Cyber-VCT Program uses access to solar-powered internet as an incentive to attract people to do HIV testing. The people who participate become part of the Post-Test Club and have free access to the labs in the Cyber-VCT facility called Ekialo Kiona Center (EKC).The facility has confidential VCT rooms, solar-powered computer lab with satellite Internet, radio studio, seminar rooms, and an   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Global report: UN AIDS report on the global AIDS epidemic 2010† (UNAIDS, 2010: http://www. unaids. org/globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_full_en. pdf). 2 World Health Organization, â€Å"Scaling-up HIV testing and counselling services: a toolkit for programme managers. † (WHO Press, 2005: http://www. who. nt/hiv/pub/vct/counsellingtestingtoolkit. pdf) 3 Information from World Health Organization on HIV testing and counselling accessed May 4, 2011: http://www. who. int/hiv/topics/vct/en/ 4 Joseph K. B. Matovu and Frederick E. Makumbi, â€Å"Expanding access to voluntary HIV counselling and testing in sub-Saharan Africa: alternative approaches for improving uptake, 2001–2007,† Tropical Medicine and International Health, 12:2 (November 2007), pp. 1315-1322. Page 1 of 6   1 Cyber-VCT Program open-air amphitheater.The program provides access to the only internet / library facility on the island and according to OHR, needs assessment and ethnographic research have sh own that residents are enthusiastic about having access to technology, which suggest the potential for program effectiveness. 5 There is a bi-annual membership renewal process where residents need to do individualized VCT session with a counselor from the International Medical Corps. This renewal process will provide the structure for more longitudinal effects.The ultimate goal of Cyber-VCT Program is to encourage voluntary counseling and testing, facilitate the process of referrals to Ministry of Health and FACES treatment programs, connect those who are HIV positive with locally formed psycho-social support, and improve dissemination of HIV education. It is more comprehensive and effective than community stand-alone VCT centers, mobile VCT, Routine offer of VCT or better known as provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC), and home-based VCT. These other VCT models have increased uptake but they have limitations that the Cyber-VCT program helps address.Stand-alone VCT ce nters values client initiation – people have to travel and access the services on their own but the stigma associated with it is a huge barrier that limits people from utilizing the services at the centers. The mobile VCT provides services with a mobile team traveling to communities in a van equipped with HIV-testing facilities. It addresses the issue of cost and accessibility but stigma and fears related to testing were not addressed. 6 PITC has proven to be effective in increasing participation through recommendations by providers to those attending health facilities.These patients are provided with the options to opt out but there were ethical concerns as to whether testing was actually voluntary because providers were not consistently counseling the patients Information from Organic Health Response website: http://organichealthresponse. org/cyber-vct-pilot. Jan Ostermann et al. , â€Å"Who tests, who doesn't, and why? Uptake of mobile HIV counseling and testing in the Ki limanjaro Region of Tanzania,† PLoS One 6:1 (January 2011) e16488. 6 5 Page 2 of 6 Cyber-VCT Program 7 thoroughly.Home-based VCT provides services at residents’ homes which addresses accessibility and cost concerns, in addition to eliminates the stigma resulting from being seen at a testing site, but it does not eliminate people’s fear of being stigmatized and rejected by their own family members. 8 The Cyber-VCT program is superior to these models because it helps to eliminate the stigma attached to getting HIV testing, ensures confidentiality, provide proper education, and focuses on sustainability through micro-clinic networks. The Cyber-VCT program has been pilot tested in Mfangano Island in Suba District Lake Victoria (West Kenya).OHR’s vision is to implement an effective comprehensive model starting with Mfangano Island and expanding it to the entire Lake Victoria through micro-clinic networks in hopes that the model can be implemented in other rural impoverished areas to continue fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide. Mfangano Island is the appropriate pilot site because it has a population of 19,000 people with an estimate of over 30% local prevalence of HIV/AIDS. One of the major threats of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the island is the possible extinction of the indigenous Suba language and way of life.In addition, the neglected people of the island face various health, economic, political, environmental, and social issues. The island has no electricity and there is one road that circles the base of the island. The primary occupation is fishing and subsistence farming. The impoverished people rely on the Nile perch stock that has been the source of many other issues. The industrial Nile perch export fishery has resulted in unsafe â€Å"fish-for-sex† practices and natural resource depletion. The Nile perch stock has also caused interstate resource conflicts between Kenya and Uganda.Even worse is that   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mercy K. Njeru et al. , â€Å"Practicing provider-initiated HIV testing in high prevalence settings: Consent concerns and missed preventive opportunities,† BMC Health Services Research, 11:87 (April 2011): http://www. biomedcentral. com/1472-6963/11/87. 8 Edgar M. Mulogo et al. , â€Å"Facility and home based HIV Counseling and Testing: a comparative analysis of uptake of services by rural communities in southwestern Uganda,† BMC Health Services Research, 11:54 (March 2011): http://www. iomedcentral. com/1472-6963/11/54. Page 3 of 6   7 Cyber-VCT Program overfishing and the environmental issues are endangering the existence of the Nile perch stock. Overpopulation, deforestation, and unsustainable farming practices are the cause of these environment al issues. 9 OHR is taking a comprehensive multi-step approach starting with the Cyber-VCT program to address the complex interconnected issues feeding into the HIV/AIDS problem. OHR plans to sustain the program by building a local infrastructure with micro-clinic networks that empowers the communities.The Cyber-VCT program is the first layer that serves as the gateway to these networks. The networks are formed to encourage people to support each other in an organic way and make the program attractive to residents. Interested participants will go through a five-week social solidarity program to receive education and training on tools to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The workshops will take place at EKC. The goal is for the program participants to provide continuous support to their communities in micro-clinic teams of 5-25 people.In this way, an infrastructure is established for future innovation, such as organic farm plots, composting bio-gas latrines, solar cooking ovens, youth r adio, and other sustainable projects, to occur. Most importantly, the infrastructure empowers local communities rather than merely looking â€Å"western. † The objective is to develop a mutually beneficial connection between the local community-based organizations and the international health governance systems rather than having the impoverished rural communities depend only on international assistance.Global scalability will depend on proving the effectiveness of the comprehensive model because the model required a great amount of resources. Obtaining support and acquiring funding from various entities will be crucial. The cost of building the center (sustainable ferro  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"Ripples of Dispute Surround Tiny Island in East Africa,† New York Times, August 16, 2009 (http://www. nytimes. com/2009/08/17/world/africa/17victoria. html). Page 4 of 6   9 Cyber-VCT Program ement design), research, program design, curriculum development, program staffing, implementation (community mobilization, training workshops) is estimated to be $339,000. This amount does not include the cost of land because it was donated by a community leader so the estimated cost for implementation at other areas may be higher. In addition, the $339,000 includes mostly upfront cost and further detailing of maintenance cost will need to be considered. Some of the maintenance cost will be related to technological equipment or systems, security, and infrastructure sustainability.A comparative study is necessary to show improvements in VCT uptake and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, to attract funding for implementation in other remote impoverish areas that are affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Furthermore, each workshop within the sol idarity program will need to be closely evaluated to make improvements or eliminate any ineffective training and education. Beyond funding, the mutual beneficial relationship between the local communities and international organizations will also play an important role in scalability for resource stability.Strong local ownership of the program will also be invaluable. The networks will likely serve to engage residents organically because the micro-teams will consist of residents’ neighbors, friends, family members. Perhaps, to further encourage local ownership and stabilize the infrastructure, it may be effective to consider creating jobs for local residents to maintain the EKC and microclinics networks. Another layer to the program can be to train local residents to take on positions that may be initially be filled by international partners.OHR’s Cyber-VCT program strives to provide an innovation solution to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in remote impoverished areas b y using technology. The program is more innovative than other VCT models in that people are incentivized to participate and become part of a network that is intended to build itself in an organic way. Furthermore, Cyber-VCT Page 5 of 6 Cyber-VCT Program program uses access to technology as cover and ensures confidentiality to address the people’s concern of being stigmatized, which is on the top of list of the many reasons why VCT participate rate remains low.Another way the program is more innovative is that it has a high chance of sustainability because of OHR’s focus on building a local infrastructure. The added benefit of establishing a local infrastructure is that it allows for further innovations to address other social, environmental, economic, political issues that are connected to the HIV/AIDS problem. In regards to scalability, securing funding by proving the effectiveness of the program, maintaining the mutually beneficial relationship between the local and nternational organizations, encouraging strong local empowerment, and other considerations such as creating local job opportunities for residents can help drive down cost and make the program scalable. As detailed in this paper, OHR’s Cyber-VCT program incorporated in the comprehensive model meets the five Tech Award evaluation criteria outlined on their website10 and is a great candidate for the award. 10 The Tech Awards Criteria: http://www. techawards. thetech. org/nominate/criteria/. Page 6 of 6

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Batman Character Study

Batman is often referred to as an emotionless and inhuman character that does not have any significant relationships in his life. On the surface it may seem like that, but in reality Batman does have relationships with people. Examples of these relationships are shown in the graphic novel, Batman Year One, and the movie, The Dark Knight. The first person that Batman has a relationship with is Lieutenant Jim Gordon. Batman and Gordon share a common goal of getting crime off the streets. At the beginning of Batman Year One Gordon believed that Batman was a villain. Gordon thought that he could not trust Batman. As the story went on Gordon realized that Batman was fighting crime and was a trustworthy person. Gordon knows that he needs Batman’s help to help take down not only criminals, but the corrupt police system in Gotham. And Batman knows he needs someone with values within the corrupt police force to help him fight crime. This relationship carries over into the movie, The Dark Knight. Gordon can now signal Batman whenever he needs assistance, by simply turning a giant spot light used to signal Batman. Many people do not consider Gordon a friend of Batman’s but Aristotle does not agree with that. They have what is called a friendship of utility, which means both men benefit from the other. Batman needs Gordon, a trustworthy man inside a corrupt police force. Gordon needs Batman, a superhero that can help stop all the crime in Gotham City. Another relationship that Batman has is with his butler, Alfred. When Bruce Wayne’s parents were killed Alfred became the father figure in Bruce’s life. Alfred raised Bruce and made him the man he is today. Alfred has been there everyday of Bruce’s life. In turn, Alfred is given a house to live in and all the necessary things to live. Alfred is very nurturing and is often there for Bruce with great advice. In The Dark Knight when Batman wanted to quit, Alfred had the right things to say in order to motivate Batman to keep fighting crime. It is clear that Batman and Alfred have a strong relationship. Their relationship is closer than the one that Batman and Jim Gordon share. They seem to have an emotional caring for one another. The only thing that is keeping them from having a deeper relationship is the fact that Bruce will always be the master and Alfred will always be the servant. The last relationship that Batman has is with Rachel Dawes. Rachel is a childhood friend of Bruce and the love of his life. She is one of the only persons to know Batman’s true identity as Bruce Wayne. In The Dark Knight Batman is often trying to save her. One example is when she is thrown off of the building by the Joker, Batman jumps off to rescue her. Another example is when both Harvey Dent and Rachel are trapped at different locations and Batman must choose which one he wants to save. Batman chooses to go after Rachel. It is very obvious that Batman has strong feelings for her. Rachel and Bruce were once together but Bruce’s job as Batman got in the way. Rachel is now dating Gotham’s District Attorney, Harvey Dent. This hurts Batman because he can’t stand to see the love of his life with someone else. Batman shows the most emotion toward Rachel, and this makes him a very human character. In conclusion, Batman is a very human character with strong relationships. This is clearly shown through his relationships with Jim Gordon, Alfred, and Rachel Dawes. At a glimpse, it seems as though Batman is inhuman. But once you dig deeper you find he has many relationships and cares for many people. Many people say that Batman has no strong, deep relationships. This is not true. Batman’s strongest relationship is with the city he protects. Batman made a promise to his parents. He promised he would make Gotham a better place. Protecting and cleaning up Gotham gives Batman the utmost fulfillment.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

EBay In China Study Case Essay

Question 1 eBay first entered the Chinese market in 2002 by acquiring a 33% stake in its local counterpart, EachNet, followed by a full acquisition a year later in 2003. Critically assess eBay.s choice of market entry strategy for China (use Key Country Matrix), listing both the advantages and disadvantages of its acquisition strategy (use Drivers (YIP) -CAGE Matrix). 30% Key Country Matrix Looking at the structure of â€Å"key country matrix†, we notice that this matrix has two axes (the x-axis that shows the â€Å"competitive strength† observed in the country that we are studying; the vertical axis represents the â€Å"country atractiveness†). For China, we can say that among many others, there is a top 6 of factors that drive investment there (China is an attractive investment country): 1. Capital Availability; 2. Competitiveness; 3. Regulatory Environment; 4. Stability; 5. Local Chinese Market and Business Climate; 6. Openness to Regional and International Trade. Analyzing China’s competitive strength, we conclude that this is a country still developing. China has shortages of infrastructures and services in several markets (China’s competitive strength is not that high). Drivers (YIP) Location of activity is a crucial source of potential advantage and one of the distinguishing features of international strategy relative to other diversification strategies. Given internationalization’s complexity, international strategy should be underpinned by a careful diagnosis of the strengths and direction of trend in particular markets. George Yip’s drivers of globalization’ framework provides a basis for such diagnosis. CAGE 1. Culture distance; 2. Administrative and political distance; 3. Geographical distance; 4. Economic distance. The differences between the US and China are huge when evaluating the â€Å"culture distance†, the â€Å"administrative and political distance†, the â€Å"geographical distance† and the â€Å"economic distance†. When a company like eBay assumes intend to expand its business should be aware of these differences and adopt strategies that prevent these differences to interfere in business success. Vantages/Disadvantages of the acquisition strategy When a company like eBay assumes intend to expand its business to China should be aware of the differences between both countries and adopt strategies that prevent these differences to interfere in business success. As a disadvantage, we can consider the risk of the company not adapt in a positive way to the new market (there is the possibility of being rejected by the Chinese market). As an advantage, we can consider the possibility of this acquisition became a huge success and the sales can increase abruptly (as the Chinese market is really big, this means that eBay’s profit would be really high after this â€Å"movement†). Question 2 Assess the potential benefits and risks of eBay.s joint venture with Tom Online (use Global/Local Matrix). 20% The Global / Local Matrix assesses the volume of international trade and the volume of foreign direct investment in an industry. The industry in which it operates eBay is located in the upper right corner as shown in the figure. It is a global industry which revised the philosophy â€Å"Think Globally, Act Globally† and where there are high levels of international trade and foreign direct investment. In recent years the market for e-commerce in China has recorded tremendous growth. The joint venture on analyzing is based in the relationship between TOM Online and Skype communications company online at eBay Inc. EBay is one of the largest brands of e-commerce in the world and TOM Online is a provider of excellent services to Chinese consumers. Both companies will make financial contributions online, and the new market being built by a joint venture between eBay and TOM Online will provide a great experience for users. This joint venture will promove the connection between users and channels of distribution. Therefore, in our view this joint venture has everything to be a success. Question 3 Advantages / Disadvantages of JV international strategy On one hand, a Joint Venture strategy has several advantages, mostly when it is done on a market like Chinese one, which is very protective with its national firms and little accommodative for foreign companies. TOM online is one of the largest wireless service providers and the fifth-largest internet portal in China, which allows Ebay to penetrate the market faster and easier thanks to its existing brand-awareness among Chinese population, generating for ebay a time saver. TOM online has also a strong political asset by being supported by Li Ka-shing, the biggest holder of the company, who has also strong connexions with hugh-ranking officials both in Chian and Hong Kong. This success on the Chinese market shows that the firm has a great expertise on the specificities of this business area, and decrease the  risk for Ebay to make mistake with its strategy. Also, by making a JV, the financial risks and costs decrease because they are shared between the two firms and a synergy is created between the two sides, increasing the financial power of the firms and allowing them to launch project with shared financial participation. On the other hand, with a JV, the earnings have to be shared, so they are lower. To make this partnership happen, it demand a lot more work and energy than with the other type of partnership. That includes heavy research about the law and the compatibility between the two structures. This setting of the JV comes with a lot of impact on the management of the new entity. There is risk of disagreement on how the dividends should be shared, disagreement on the managerial model to adopt and on the global strategy. All these problemes can bring to conflict of interest and make the JV losing market shares. Question 4 : Strategic recomendation on International Commercial Strategy for E-Bay: â€Å"Alliance, Acquisition or Abandon Strategy† : Cf Excel document for QSPM Matrix.  Due to this QSPM analysis, we can see that the acquiring method is still more than the expanding method, but from close, thus we know that Ebay is the auction website, so we can council them to continue acquiring the other companies†¦

Friday, September 27, 2019

Globalism - Good and Bad Characteristics Research Paper

Globalism - Good and Bad Characteristics - Research Paper Example Globalism is considered to be against, the American ideology and that they resent the policy and instead propagate consideration of the individual countries as separate entities. In some extreme references, the term globalism can be referred to as one world or world citizen or global citizen. With regard to this, my paper seeks to understand and report the socio-economic impacts of the globalism in the world and how it catalyzes coherency in culture. Third world countries have been alienated from the mainstream economic and social development in the international arena. Without the consideration of the global as a unit, the developing world has an uphill task to march and be commensurate to the ever dynamic and changing world. This is with regard to the policies that exist within the nations necessitating bilateral trade and other policies including extradition policies (Steger, 195). Globalism advocates for the equal consideration of nations and this is expected to spur rapid econom ic and avoidance of exploitation of the countries in the all important bilateral trade that takes place between countries. The extent of globalism has been manifested several instances, for example, the incorporation and engagement of the E-commerce in the international trade allows for the swift dissemination and transfer of information (Ambrose, Stephen, and Douglas, 99). In the same breadth, it is possible to at a glance have a comparative analysis of the goods prices and other services such that there is a standardized market rate for the products in the entire world. The Positive effects of Globalism Globalism also views the world as a single unit and that the individual countries are interdependent in developing the different specific economies of the individual countries. The fact that countries engage in a free economic zone that is deliberately established comes with different arrays of advantages and goodies. The different countries have a greater pool with which they can draw the new and contemporary technologies. Technology is in a state of improvement day by day, without the transfer of this knowledge in the most opportune time possible the extent o knowledge dissemination faces reasonable hurdles and this greatly impairs rapid development (Winant, 244). The problem of knowledge and technological dissemination is resolved forthwith through globalism. Globalism has also enabled the different countries to have diverse and a wide spectrum of goods and services. The a availability of the various products in the several markets around the world not only solve the problem of acute scarcity but also helps in stabilizing the prices worldwide and in the most cost effective prices (Powell, 202). The need for globalism has also resolved the problem of communication, communication has been made easier than before and the whole world can be looked as being flat and that people can access information and move closer to one another than ever before (Steger, 234) . Communication is one of the most important tools in the contemporary society and no one can imagine of that the world can be a single unit. In this sense, we realize the role of the globalism in trying to harmonize and bring about consistency in the worlds way of perception. The Negative Effect of Globalism Globalism in as much as it brings the a plethora of positive values to the whole world and defines the world as a common unit that can be considered one, it also come

Thursday, September 26, 2019

The Negotiation of Culture in Multi-National corporations Research Paper

The Negotiation of Culture in Multi-National corporations - Research Paper Example The primary respondents and sources of information for this study are the Romanian nationals working for this corporation. Moreover, third party respondents such as spouses and close friends were included in the data collection. The third party would be helpful in disclosing information that employees could not, either intentionally or not. In the collection of data, I relied on networking with employees working for this company. First I collected data from different employees regarding various issues related to culture. This was done through interviews. I addition to this, data was also collected from the company’s HR policies and training programs that I accessed from the organization’s website. Annotation of one of the main articles Schotter, Andreas, and Paul W. Beamish. Intra-organizational turbulences in multinational corporations. This article is published in the book Politics and Power in the Multinational Corporation. by Christoph Do?rrenba?cher and Mike Gepper t in 2011. This is a research article that is based on intra-organizational crises that occur within multinational corporations. The article is aimed at advancing literature on the relationship between multinational corporations and their foreign subsidiaries. ... rganizational conflict in multinational corporations between headquarters and their foreign subsidiaries is not a characteristic of dysfunction and unsuccessful global integration. This is a matter I concur with. Multinational corporations operate in different regions globally. These regions have different cultures under which these businesses are set to operate, hence cultural differences that can cause conflicts. This calls for the management to adopt different strategies when managing relationships between headquarter and subsidiaries. A question that I seek to ask is, if this is the problem, then what is the way forward? According to Schotter and Beamish, global integration measures can be adopted to deal with this challenge. Global integration refers to strategic and organizational activities that seek to reduce organizational and operational differences between a multinational corporation and its subsidiaries (Do?rrenba?cher and Geppert 191). A multinational corporation has to manage many subsidiaries and as a result other factors that trigger conflicts emerge. These factors include global and local competitor strategies, host and home country regulatory requirements, differing market and customer preferences and managerial characteristics and preferences among others. Negotiation is one of the ways through which an organization can resolve a conflict (Adams and Markus 337). A multinational corporation can hardly do away with foreign subsidiaries, since it is meant to operate globally. Cultural differences can result into conflict in multinational corporations; therefore there is need for negotiations of culture in these firms. I find this article relevant to my research topic as it outlines various sources of conflict as a result of foreign spheres of operation.

Principle of Marketing in the Food and Beverages Market Research Paper

Principle of Marketing in the Food and Beverages Market - Research Paper Example Bearing the lessons in mind, the marketing strategies which shall be proposed for Shin Shii shall be founded upon the characteristics of the market in question and, proceeding from that, shall aim towards the maximization of effect within a reasonable budget. In selecting its marketing strategy for entry into the U.S. market, it is necessary to consider both the threats and opportunities which shall confront Shin Shii. Based on observations of the US beverages market, marketing and market research scholars have determined that the primary threats confronting both existing companies and new entrants are over-saturation and an increasingly health-conscious consumer-base (Swot,'2005). In other words, not only is competition extremely intense and dominated by a handful of major food and beverages companies but, health concerns are functioning as a threat to the maintenance of the existent market, let alone its expansion. While market research scholars have identified a number of serious threats confronting the food and beverages' market, they have also identified a number of attractive opportunities, especially pertinent to the case of Shin Shii. In the first place, while the beverages' market may be oversaturated, the U.S. consumer market is a highly experimental one by nature and is attracted to novelty (Swot,' 2005). In other words, it exhibits a persistent and unfailing tendency to test the new. In the second place, the trend towards health consciousness implies that while the soda market may be sealed off for the present, there is a market for beverages which are considered healthy or, at least, benign, in that they neither have negative nor positive health effects.  

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

A study of Marketing Strategies of Burberry for the Chinese Luxury Essay

A study of Marketing Strategies of Burberry for the Chinese Luxury Market - Essay Example I also declare that the intellectual content of this dissertation is the product of my own work, except to the extent that assistance from others in the conception or in style, presentation and linguistic expression is acknowledged (where applicable). I certify that, to the best of my knowledge, my dissertation does not infringe upon anyone’s copyright or violate any propriety rights and that any ideas, techniques, quotations, or any other material from the work of other people included in my dissertation, published or otherwise, are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing practices. Furthermore, t the extent that I have included copyrighted material that surpasses the bounds of fair dealing within the meaning of the UK Copyright Act, I certify that I have obtained a written permission from the copyright owner(s) to include such material(s) in my dissertation and have included copies of such copyright clearances to my appendix. I declare that this is a t rue copy of my dissertation, including any final revisions, and that this dissertation has not been submitted for a higher degree to any other university or institution. AUTHOR’S NAME AUTHOR’S SIGNATURE .......................................... DATE ................... Table of Content 1. INTRODUCTION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦7 1.1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.7 1.2 Economic scenarios and its effect on the luxury brands†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.7 1.3 Shopper behaviour in recession†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 1.4 Objectives of the research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...8 1.5 Research Question†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..8 1.6 Relevance of the study†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..9 1.7 Value of the research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦....9 1.8 Purpose of the research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.9 1.9 Outcomes of the research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.9 1.10 Personal motivation for the research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã ¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..10 1.11 Research Questions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 2. Literature Review†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦11 2.1 Luxury brands in the world†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..13 2.2 Luxury goods: A definition†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..............12 2.3 Marketing strategies for luxury goods†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.15 2.4 Brand awareness and Dream Values†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..17 2.5 Consumer Behaviour†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..18 2.6 Shiffman’s & Kanuk’s Theory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...18 2.6.1 Passive View†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...18 2.6.2 Cognitive View†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..18 2.6.3 Emotional View†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦....†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.18 2.6.4 Economical View†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

How to build a successful team Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

How to build a successful team - Essay Example The team leader is usually elected from the members of the team through voting. There are a number of desirable qualities that a team leader should possess in order to guide the team and keep the people in it together. There are different leadership styles that a leader may adopt in order to be effective at his job, such as visionary leadership, participatory leadership, charismatic leadership, authoritative leadership and others. A leader must be able to visualize the end goal of the team and formulate strategies to bring the team closer to the goal. Also, the leader must know how to listen actively and communicate assertively to influence the members of the team. 2. The Size of the Team The number of people within the team is very important so if the team is to functional and efficient, it needs to be at the right size. Too small teams may be too lean to be effective while too big teams may be difficult to manage. As a general rule, teams must have 8-10 members to be effective. If the group is too big, the members may be divided into smaller sub-groups. 3. Variety of Skills Among Members of the Group The skills of the members of the team are important and it is desirable that these skills be varied. No, it is not a good idea to choose team members that are of the same skills levels and the same frame of mind. Although homogenous types of groups have their own advantages, they also have their own disadvantages and more often than not, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. Note that members have to play different roles within the team so if these members have varied skills, they can be assigned to certain tasks that are within their areas of expertise. Also, if the members of the group are of the same skills level and way of thinking, these people may tend to compete with each other instead of complement each other. For a team to stay strong, the people inside the team must complement each other and work together in a harmonious manner. Yes, there may be s ome degree of competition is a heterogeneous team but the competition may not be as fierce as it is in a homogenous team. 4. The Personalities of the Members of the Team The degree of maturity and the overall personalities of the people within the team contribute much to the strength and quality of the team. Choosing the personalities of the people in the team depend on the tasks that need to be done. For instance, if the task requires more mature judgment, it would be best to go for older and more mature team members. On the other hand, if the tasks to be performed require the agility and energy of young people, it would be best to select younger members for the team. However, if the team is to perform varied tasks, having both mature and young team members would be more appropriate. 5. Team Bonding Team bonding is very important to create rapport among the members. Creating a friendly and collegial atmosphere in the team will help facilitate the sharing of ideas and smoothen out t he working relationship between team members. Team bonding activities may include participation in training courses, strategic planning and social activities where the members of the team can interact freely with each other. A good time to promote team bonding is during celebrations of achievements and celebration of certain occasions such as birthdays and the likes. 6. internal conflict resolution mechanism Since teams are composed of individuals with different personalities,

Monday, September 23, 2019

Review of Ashton Coal Water Management Plan Term Paper

Review of Ashton Coal Water Management Plan - Term Paper Example It is the Department of Primary Industries and Water which typically formulates as well as executes an effectual water management plan. However, it is mandatory for this particular department to sanction an application from a Water Entity for the purpose of taking over the execution of the plan (DPIPWE, n.d.). An effective water management plan possesses certain imperative functions. These functions comprise determining water pricing, complying with financial regulations, conducting perfect water planning along with management, identifying water markets, developing water supply as well as allied services and most importantly advancing appropriate management of water quality. It is the accountability of different water authorities, governmental agencies and water utilities to ensure smoothly execution of an effective plan of water management (NWMS, 2012). An effective water management plan is quite indispensable in order to preserve environmental integrity by forming an appropriate ba lance between various important aspects like sustainable advancement, socio-economic development and healthy along with secured environment (Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, 2007). It has been apparently observed that the conception of an effective water management plan is practiced for several years with the intention of fostering sustainable development and healthy environment. The framework associated with the plan of water management has been principally based upon enlarged understanding about environmental complexities and future challenges linked with socio-economic development. According to the frameworks associated with the plan of water planning, it has been viewed that the plan can be applied to different water bodies that encompass rivers, streams, wetlands, aquifers and lakes. Any individual can introduce as well as develop an effective planning related to water management but must follow the frameworks with the intention of fostering socio-economic advancement and sustainable development (Grafton & Hussey, n.d.). In this similar circumstance, it is to be stated that the frameworks linked with effective planning of water management would be reviewed after every five years ensuring that the plan continues to endorse prolonged water management. Specially mentioning, the prime objectives of an effectual planning of water management are to deliver long-term benefits to the community and most significantly to foster sustainable advancement along with socio-economic development. After acquiring a brief idea about the prime intentions of an effectual water management plan, it can broadly be affirmed that the aspect concerning effective planning of water management has broader scope in future targeting towards developing the environment at large (Alberta Environment, n.d.). With this concern, this paper intends to conduct an in-depth review of Water Management Plan relating to Ashton Coal. Moreover, after conducting thorough review of different fa cets contained in the plan, the plan would be passed or not will also be discussed in this paper. A Brief Overview of Ashton Coal Water Management Plan Ashton Coal Operations Pty Limited which is prevalently acknowledged as ACOL is fundamentally regarded as a completely-owned ancillary of Yancoal Australia Limited (Yancoal). It is essentially a coalmine which operates the Ashton Coal Project (ACP) that is located in the

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Management studies Essay Example for Free

Management studies Essay Introduction Since starting the DMS in September I have found the workshop programme very useful. I have learnt many styles and techniques of management and from this have applied to my workplace with very effective results, also using my workplace as an experimental ground for practising my new techniques. From this, I have learnt from my mistakes and errors and rectified them to continually improve my own performance, and thus improve the performance of my department within the business. From leaving school with four o levels, I started my working career as an engineer; attaining an apprenticeship at Phillips Components. After four years of completing this, along with a higher national certificate in computer aided engineering, I acquired a position of Toolmaker in the Toolroom. I then continued working as a Toolmaker for the next eleven years without ever considering a managerial position. After many years of Toolmaking I acquired the position of Improvement Technician within the Sub-components department (press shop) and after Twelve months was offered the position of Shift Leader within this department. From taking the leap from Engineering to production/people management it was recommended that I returned to college to complete a Diploma in Management Studies to gain the academic qualifications to compliment my new role. Learning Style and Teamwork Theory One of the first workshop sessions was based on learning style and teamwork theory. For this we completed questionnaires on learning style and the Belbin self perception inventory, a questionnaire based on individuals team role profile. The learning style questionnaire was designed to understand your preferred learning style and help you pinpoint your learning preferences so that you are in a better position to select learning experiences that suit your style. The results are broke down into four different styles: Activists, Reflectors, Theorists and Pragmatists. After scoring myself on the questionnaire, the results suggested that I had a very strong preference towards being an Activist, a strong preference towards a reflector and moderate preference towards Theorist and Pragmatist. An Activist is a person who is very open-minded and enthusiastic about new ideas or experiences. They tend to act first and consider the consequences later. They tackle problems by brainstorming and thrive on the challenge of new experiences. They are gregarious people constantly involving themselves with others but, in doing so, they seek to centre all activities around themselves. With the learning style of an Activist I find it very hard work to sit down and study, I also find it very difficult reading a book as I tend to find my mind wandering off on to other activities I could be doing. Analysing my learning style within the workplace, I would tend to agree with these results. I have a reputation at work for being very enthusiastic and passionate about my department and also about the company I work for, also preferring to physically get stuck in with problems we encounter, rather than sitting down and discussing them. Within each learning style there is a set path we need to progress through in order to get the most out of any learning experience, these are as follows: Step one, having an experience In step one there are two easy in which we can have an experience; one is to be passive and allow the experience to happen and you needing to react, two is to deliberately seek them out in a proactive manner. Step two, reviewing the experience I tend to think this is the one we most often miss out on, we tend to jump this one and come to a conclusion before weve reviewed an experience in a none judgemental manner (with an open mind and no preconceptions). Time needs to be taken out to properly review any experience to gain anything from it. Step three, conclusions from the experience This involves looking at the reviewed experience step to understand and see what lessons can be learnt. Step four, planning the next step There would be little point in reviewing or coming up with any conclusions from the experience if we did not apply this newly gained knowledge to future events. The Self Perception Inventory The Belbin self perception inventory specifies nine roles for the efficient working of a team. Once the questionnaire is completed, a team role profile is then calculated for the individual and a counselling report is created. The chart below shows how I scored: Roles and Descriptions Team-Role Contribution Percentage Score Specialist 93% Plant 81% Resource Investigator 73% Shaper 69% Complete Finisher 63% Monitor Evaluator 50% Team Worker 25% Co-Coordinator 9% Implementer 2% My profile shows that I gain great intrinsic satisfaction from the nature of work in which I am engaged. For me work is like a hobby, offering me a chance to exercise my creative disposition and achieving professionalism all at the same time. As far as the outside world is concerned, I will be known and respected for my knowledge and special skills and for the fact that I am in the forefront of most new developments. My limitations I may have to accept apply to my administrative and managerial skills. I may have to make a conscious choice in terms of the direction of my career. A wider arena would offer broader prospects of advancement, but would also face stiffer competition, with the chance of me loosing some of my professional expertise. The alternative would be to build up my personal reputation in my own special area and carve out my own job within it. Reflecting on my results from the self perception inventory, I must realise that to become a better team player, I must understand my allowable weaknesses from the roles I scored high in. Also I must work on increasing the lower end scores, by becoming a better co-ordinator and implementer, also increasing my team worker skills. Residential To start the course off, our first learning experience of working within teams was the residential activity at Dove Nest. After a brief introduction (and cup o tea) we were soon split into four groups and given the mine field activity to complete. This being a perfect ice-breaker to the course, testing our teamwork skills and also a perfect opportunity to get to know other students. Instantly, different individuals personalities and trends were noticed and within minutes different traits were easily recognised as some members co-ordinated whilst others problem solved or challenged ideas. Our team decided it would be an advantage to amalgamate with the adjacent team to create a synergy were by we would attain greater power due to the creation of synthetic energy, i.e. the understanding that to join forces more than twice the power of each individual team would be achieved. Unfortunately, this was not the case. Although we did manage to complete task, we didnt accomplish it in the fast est time. Before to long we were soon split into other groups and given different tasks to complete with goals clearly set. One task I thoroughly enjoyed and learned a lot from was a task where all team members had to run up a hill (about 20 metres) to a square marked out on the floor (approx 3m sq.). Inside the square was 18 randomly spaced tags pinned to the ground, numbered 1 to 18. Our task was for all team members to run up to the square, then all the tags had to be touched, respectively from 1 to 18, but only one member was allowed into the square at any one time. Once this was complete, all the team then had to run back to the start point and cross this point within a specified time. We were given an allocated time to plan the task and also only given three timed attempts to achieve our target. Instantly we conducted a brainstorming session to assess all our different options. Then after heated debate about which ideas we thought would be the most efficient we then decided to perform what we thought would be the fastest trials. After timing each option we then chose the fastest and analysed this to see if we could improve on the practiced times. Once we thought we couldnt improve any more we then attempted to reach our goal. Of the three timed events, the first one was about twenty seconds overtime, the second just under, but by the third attempt we had shaved about forty seconds off our original time, also clearly beating the goal set. We achieved this through everybody committing to the teams needs to achieve the goal set, where everybody knew their place within the team, even though everybody did not agree with some of the decisions. A great sense of satisfaction and camaraderie was achieved by the conquering of this task, with all the team thoroughly motivated and geared up, ready for the next task. Finally on day one we were given the task of running our own business, the final goal, to manufacture and sail a raft on Lake Windermere. Different roles of team members soon developed, one person accounting, another designing, whilst others negotiated with opposing teams to acquire either more money or materials. Once enough materials were obtained, the raft was ready to be manufactured. Again, different team roles were seen, as some members built the raft whilst others delegated different tasks, and others stood back, saying thatll never float, youll not get me on that, only to be proved wrong once the race got underway. For me, there were many learning points from Dove Nest even though at this point we had not covered these techniques at college. It was an excellent opportunity to improve my listening and negotiating skills, as well as improving my delegating techniques. The best learning experiences for me were teamwork and motivation. Working within teams were nobody knew other peoples knowledge or capabilities, or what specialities they may possess created an atmosphere were by to achieve the goals set, individuals roles had to be rapidly appointed. I also found the problem solving activities very stimulating, probably through my engineering background. Dove nest was also an excellent starting point to the course as many students (myself included) were novices to the styles and theories ahead, thus giving everybody a perfect foundation to the year ahead. Reflecting on how each team member performed on the residential, I think it would be an excellent idea to perform a similar residential exercise at the end of the year to recognise the improvement of individuals performance. Presentation Skills A great learning point for me was the workshop on presentation skills. When confronted with the task of presenting to the group I was keen to improve my ability as presentations are a key role in my position at work, whether presenting a fortnightly team brief or a project presentation to senior Management. Previous to workshop I have encountered some bad experiences in the workplace, due to inadequate planning beyond my control. After watching the video on presentations, I came away with a greater knowledge of what creates a good presentation. The key learning points for me being preparation, content and delivery. What is the purpose of the presentation and why? Know your subject do your homework. Know your audience, the objective being to keep them interested. A good presentation should have a suitable introduction, main theme and conclusion. The delivery is also essential, confidence being the key, keep to a specified time and remember that you are the person presenting and the effect of it is upon your audience. I found it very beneficial to be able to watch and judge peoples presentation skills reflecting with the rest of the group on how to improve these skills, not feeling under any pressure whilst doing so; an option not available at work. The experience of having someone give feedback to a presentation allowed me to fully focus myself on the need to learn from, and understand my shortcomings, is also gave me the opportunity to scrutinise the way in which I should deliver a presentation. As I have a learning style of an Activist, and therefore wanting to try anything once to gain a new experience, I chose to give my presentation on a non-work related matter. I decided to give my presentation on what I labelled The Millionaire Lifestyle Weekend a presentation on how to live a millionaire lifestyle for the weekend working within a budget that most people would find affordable. Fortunately I wasnt presenting until the third week, which gave me plenty of time to plan my presentation. Also gaining more knowledge on this subject through analysing other students presentations and making observations as to how their presentation could be improved. A key observation from myself was never apologise when presenting as this may come across as being negative. Also, try to keep the audience interested and keep within the time specified. Provide a handout for any important information, but dont distribute until the end of the presentation. When the time came to delivering my presentation, I was at first nervous, due to previous experiences, but after the first two slides I felt more at ease due to the environment in which the workshop was held and also due to the fact that I felt confident about what I was presenting thanks to sufficient planning and preparation. I think another added contribution was the fact that the first couple of slides grabbed peoples attention and instantly they were thinking this looks interesting, a very important learning point, grasp peoples attention on the first two slides. I realised that in doing this, people sit up and listen, thus giving the presenter more confidence in what he/she is presenting. I also learnt that the rehearsal of a presentation is extremely important; I practiced this presentation about Ten to Fifteen at home in front of the mirror, finding this to be a great benefit to delivering a good presentation. Overall it gave value to me as I now know how to structure presentations. I felt, as did the others in the group that their subject would be boring for anyone else but to the contrary, as I listened to other presentations they were entertaining, informative, and all had flow to them. This tells me that if the subject to be presented is put over in the way we have been shown then the information within it is retained by the audience. Since this workshop, I have presented to management at work and felt a lot more at ease, having greater confidence in myself by understanding the correct way to performing a successful presentation, understanding the emphasis on planning as well as delivery. I have now learnt to improve my presentation skills at work a lot more by watching and analysing others present in the workplace. Time Management The time management workshop was also of great use to me with respect to my position at work. I am responsible for the production of nine different sub-components all used in the manufacture of a cathode, with present cathode production running at 300k per day, although due to losses on automation, with some components I have to produce 160 good components to make 100 good cathodes. I am responsible for a workforce of 45 people as well as providing assistance in other departments as and when required. I find myself in a position where I am constantly fire-fighting on a daily basis, going home feeling that I have taken two steps back rather than one step forward. When we had the workshop on time management I was instantly keen to increase my knowledge on this subject as time at work is sparse. I found the video a great learning tool, by watching the situation with the manager who never seemed to have any time. I instantly related issues on the video to my workplace and started to understand the important factors of managing time efficiently. Learning to identify, and then change, any bad practices such as taking on too much work that I could possibly delegate out to others, or failing to plan and organise my day correctly, understanding the difference between efficiency and effectiveness. The key points of time wasting have stayed fresh in my mind since this session understanding that I need to prioritise, delegate, plan and communicate more effectively. From watching the video, I returned to work ready to try out my latest technique. Understanding that to manage my time for that day I must spend the first five to ten minutes planning my day a head, prioritising what jobs have to be done, what jobs should be done, what jobs need not be done and what jobs I could delegate out to others. Also deciding which jobs are important, urgent, urgent and important and so on. Once I have done this, I then write a priority list in order of which jobs I shall do when, ranging from must do to least important. Since doing this on a daily basis I have found that I get through a lot more issues at work and seem to find a lot more time to take on extra tasks without the worry of not being able to complete in the required time. This has taken a large amount of pressure of my working day. Although I am sometimes still rushed off my feet, at least Im not leaving for home with my head in a spin. Conclusion When first discussing the DMS to work colleagues, who had once been students on the course. They described the workshop sessions to me, explaining about peoples learning styles and teamwork theory and I have to admit I was very sceptical about the whole thing, not understanding about Activists and pragmatists, etc. But since attending workshop I have realised that what we have learnt is true to life and have found very useful. I do have the opinion that people who become successful managers do have that special gift and that managers are born and not trained. My opinion is that to be successful not only must you have that gift but you must also learn the different techniques learnt on workshop and understand how and when to apply them to daily life. I have found that a lot of what I have learnt a necessity in the role I am in at work. I also realise that not all situations in the workplace are the same, as peoples attitudes and characteristics all vary, some on a daily basis, and to be able to handle any situation without causing upset to the individual or the business is a skill only acquired over time. Dealing with issues can be a very delicate and tricky art, but with the correct personality, integrity and knowledge gained from the workshop, success is a not such a fantasy as a nearby reality. Bibliography. KELLET, P. (2002) Presentation Skills Workshop lecture notes KELLET, P. (2002) Effective Teamwork Workshop lecture notes KELLET, P. (2002) Time Management Workshop lecture notes KELLET, P. (2002) How to Improve Your Learning Style Learning style questionnaire BELBIN (2002) Self Perception Inventory Mk2 BELBIN (2002) Self Perception Team Role Profile

Saturday, September 21, 2019

HR Practices in Reliance Industries

HR Practices in Reliance Industries Reliance telecommunications LTD is an Indian telecommunication company founded by Anil Ambani in 2004.The headquarters of the company is in Navi Mumbai India. Reliance telecommunication is the 15th largest telecommunication provider in the world with 150 million subscribers and the second largest telecommunication provider in India. The company has segments like wireless and broadband in telecommunication industry. The company achieved a high growth in telecommunication industry from the beginning stage itself. Customer satisfaction and good company policies made them to competitive with other companies. Reliance communications follows good human resource policies and procedures even though it has some draw backs. Vision of the company- Providing information, communication, entertainment services and being the benchmark in customer experience, employee centricity and innovation is the main vision of the company. Mission of the company- meeting beyond customer needs and wants with a segmented approach, relentless offering of services and products that are value for cash and stimulate customers, offer a network experience that is best in the communication industry, make reliance in to an international brand which is a iconic brand  by others and lead industry in target to purchase and faithfulness. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human resource management refers to an assortment of policies used to systematize work in the employment relationship and centres on the management of work and the management of people who undertakes this work. Therefore HRM is concerned with recruitment, selection, learning and development, reward, communication, teamwork and routine management. While it is relatively easy to list activities that make up HRM, It is a subject that stimulates much debate and disagreement. The hr process is considered as important for the management of the consumer pleasure with human recourses. The clients find comfortable and will be satisfied when they understand the hr processes and how they are connected and the hr processes interact. Modern hr processes are measured and frequently analysed and identifies the irregularities in the activities and it brings the improvements for the benefits of the organisation. The success of Human Resources Management is in the connection of all HR processes as they provide the adequate supports to workers and the managers. So the main aim of Human Resource Management is to keep the human capital ready for action on the market and the rational grouping of HR Processes helps to interact and manage the individual processes. Every organisation has their own HR processes, but the main HR Processes are always same in all companies as it is the market HR Best Practices. Human Resource Management is considered as a comparatively new approach to Personnel Management. HRM emphasizes primarily on its strategic contributions and its closer alignment to business, HRM is a vital component of any organization, its involvement among other components of line management is notable (Paauwe. J, Jan 2009). Paauwe further suggests that HRM aims on its ultimate goals such as High job performance, low absence and high cost effectiveness through the efficient utilization of the man power of the company. Human resource is really the major component of any organization, the success or failure of an organization heavily relies on its Man power management. Maslows need Hierarchy theory is considered as guiding principle for HR Management across the globe. Maslow identified the very basics of human motivation factors. Following this principle it can be assumed that to motivate an employee HR manager should understand his level of expectations, potential of the employee, a nd should evaluate the performance before and after certain motivational measures implemented. KEY HUMAN RESOURCE ACTIVITIES OF RELIANCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS Main HR process areas Manpower planning Recruitment and staffing Human resource development Compensation and benefits Leadership development MANPOWER PLANNING Human Resource Planning is the integral part of Human Resource Management Human Resource Planning estimates the optimal level of Man power requirement on the basis of quality and quantity. Thus HRP can be considered as the foundation of Human Resource management. Although HR planning is very important it cannot be executed faultlessly in all cases, as HR is dependent on various factors such as employment situation of the country, influence of technological advancement, changes in the organization structures, Demographic factors such as age, population, composition of workforce, lack of skill, multicultural workforce etc. Certain pressure groups will also affect the precision of the HRP. Understanding of competencies of the Human resource is vital in forming a successful HR frame work. Lengnic-Hall, 1988, Milliman et al., 1991, describes the terms Internal and External fit, Internal fit refers to the extent to which the manpower constituents are linked in a logical way and how effecti vely they support themselves, on the other hand external fit primarily focus on the strategy of the organization, external fit reveals to what extent human resources systems are integrated. Manpower Planning or Human Resource Planning includes putting exact number of people, exact kind of people at the exact place, exact time at a low cost. Personnel Planning hold an important place in the world of industrialization. Personnel Planning has to be a systematic approach and is managed in a set of model operations. The procedure is as follows: Assessing the present manpower in the company Forecasting the future needs budding employment programmes Organising training programmes BENEFITS OF MAN POWER PLANNING Manpower planning is very important part of human resource management. A few importance of man power planning are: Concentrated labour cost: with the help of manpower planning there is most favourable operation of labour force in the organisation workers are given those jobs to implement for which they are skilled (right person for the right job).it leads to overall progress of the man power in the organisation. Optimum utilisation of manpower: it helps to utilise the labour force in the company which helps in the growth of manpower in the organisation. Develops business plan- Man power planning is an important part of overall business planning. No business can survive without having the right type and number of people doing the right work at the right time. Helps in career succession planning-with the help of better manpower planning it helps to produce a good career succession of employees which provides much lead time for internal succession of workers through higher position through encouragement. Development of the organisation- The man power planning helps in the expansion of an organisation. Growth in overall business planning- Manpower planning is a main part of overall business planning. Efficient manpower planning will help to improve the business. RECRUITMENT AND STAFFING Recruitment and staffing is the process of selecting the right labours in to the organisation. The main aim of recruitment is to look for and be a magnet for persons with skilled to fill the vacancies. This process includes job analysis preparing personnel requirement sources of skilled employees. Job analysis Job analysis is a process of analysing the job in detail and providing the details of job needs to the HR planning department they present details as job specification and job analysis. Job analysis is important in the whole organisation. And they will provide the details of manpower requirements. The main sources of recruitment are Reliance communications have two main sources of recruitment internal and external internal external sources of recruitment(figure.2) Internal sources of recruitment are. Promotion-This is a normal source of recruitment, which means providing higher position, salary and responsibilities to the employee. So the position of the job vacancy is filled by promoting the suitable employee within the organisation. Transfers-It means transferring one employee to the other organisation without change in salary and position, so the vacancy can be filled by transfer. Advertising internally-Here the job vacancy is advertised within the organisation so the existing employees in the organisation can apply for the post. So the recruitment is take place inside the organisation. External sources of recruitment are. Selective recruitment through job boards-This is a major source of recruitment .To ensure most appropriate qualified candidates are being applied for the major position. The agency considers the following details for every positions junior, intermediate, senior, Level of education degree, diploma etc. Using these details the company determines which job boards, communication channels, and advertisement strategies are suitable for attract the right skilled candidates to apply for the job positions. Management consultants-For the vacancies in the higher positions in the company, management consultants are used to find the qualified and skilled employees. They act as a recruiter on the behalf of the company. Advertisement for public-The Company advertises the vacancy in internet, newspapers, Television etc. And this will provide the details of the company, job and the qualification required for the position. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING Keep space with new development-New developments are happening every day. A business will have to keep phase with new changes. This will be possible only if competent persons are employed who can adjust as per the new situation. Manpower Development-man power planning will have to be done in advance. The future requirements of personnel will be estimated quite in advance. The new staff will be recruited, people will be prepared for talking up higher responsibility jobs, and all this will be possible with a well planned staffing function. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPEMENT This function helps the employees to develop their skills and knowledge for increasing their output. This process is not only done for the freshers but also to the existing employees in the firm to develop their skills and responsibilities. Human resource development helps to increase the total knowledge, abilities, skills, talents, and aptitudes of an organisations work force. Human resource development includes function such as training, career development. Training-Training is providing to improve the knowledge and skills of the employees there are mainly two types of training they are on the job training and off the job training. On the job training is a process of giving training in normal working situations using actual materials or documents, equipment, actual tools trainees will make use when completely moulded. Off the job training is usually provided away from the usual working environment, it may include more general skills and knowledge which is useful for the job. This type of training is given by the specialised trainers or from an outside company who outsource the trainers. METHODS OF TRAINING A.Programmed learning- It is a step by step process of self learning method,providing questions, facts, and problems to the learner then allowing the person to respond and providing feed back on the accuracy of the answer. B. Apprentiship training- It is a method of process that the employees will become efficient workers through grouping of classroom coaching and also through on job training. C. Audio visual based training- This method of training includes tools like power point presentation, online video conferencing, audiotapes and video tapes. D. Computer based trining- This training method is widely used to provide good training to employees, it is time consuming and easy way to provide training. It is cost effective while comparing to other training methods. E. Simulated training- In this method trainess will learn from the actual or simulated equipement they will use on the job, but actually trained off the job. F. Lectures- When their is a large number of trainees, this method is used it is the immideate way to give instruction of job related activities within a specified period of time. H. Internet and distance Training Internet training includes video conferencing and web based training, distance training means traditional training paper and pencil correspondence course. 1. Tele training where a trainer in a central location teaches groups of employees at remote locations via television hookups. 2. Videoconferencing allows people in one location to communicate live via a combination of audio and visual equipment with people in different locations-another city or country or with groups in several cities. 3. Training via the Internet the Internet based learning programs are very popular. Several companies simply let their employees to take online courses provided by online course providers while others use their intranets to facilitate computer-based training. CAREER DEVELOPEMENT Diagram demonstrating your personal development Career developement of employees is a crucial part of the organisation, It helps to identifies the overall acheivement of the employees .Career developement is becoming an essential part of HR departement due to todays everchanging organisaton enviornment and work place. Reliance communications helps the employees to attain a good carrer graph based on the company HR policies and procedures. First of all the company gather the strength and weakness of every individual, then they provide different opportunities to develop their carrer based on the strength and weakness. The basic formula for the career developement is self awareness every individual asses their own problems and issues and then the company will help to over come this issues .Now days people are changing their jobs to attain a good carrer success .Reliance communication identifies this problem and they had a good career sucession plan for every individual employee in the organisation. COMPENSATION AND BENEFITS Compensation and benefits is a basic motivational factor to the employees. Every employee will search for high paid jobs,benefits is also another important factor if the company provides good benifits the employees will get good attachment to the company. Benefits include bonus, medical insurance,retierment policies, life insurace, vacation etc.Reliance communicatons provide basic pay which is satisfiable for every employee to motivate the employees and to attract to qualified employees to the organisation. LEADERSHIP DEVELOPEMENT Leadership developement helps the organisation to achieve the goals, through the developement of good leadership in each employee reliance aims at the overall developement of the organisation as well as the growth in employees functioning.Every employee in the organisation is gaining a better leadership quality through the leadership developement function.Each emloyees in the company are closely monitored by the management and if they are weak in the work the company will encourage them.And the workers are councelled by the management to increase work efficiency.And their will be a structured plan to create a positive working enviornment.The main aim of leadership developement is to leading self,leading others and leading the organisation. MAJOR HR ISSUES FACED BY RELIANCE COMMUNICATION ISSUES IN RELIANCE COMMUNICATIONS EMPLOYEE RETENTION POOR HR POLICIES CASH AND COMPENSATION ISSUES 1.CASH AND COMPENSATION ISSUES: Cash and compensation issues is a major problem faced by HR managers in reliance communications. There is more pressure on HR function to pay more incentives and basic pay for the employees.However reliance paying basic salary to each individual employees the company faces more pressure to meet the employee beniefits . 2.EMPLOYEE RETENTION ISSUES: Most of the companies face the same problem of employee lay-offs. So the organisation have to prevent the issue by retaining the employee by providing good working condition and benefits whichever the employees need. In reliance industries there are so many employees leave the company due to lack of co-ordination between workers. The organisation tries to check the issue but fails sometimes. 3. POOR HR POLICIES : The plocies and practices adopted by the HR managers regarding their networking sector is an important example. They brought some new plans in mobile networking sector like low call rate for mobile users, low internet browsing charge.etc., but the competitors like AIRTEL communications, BSNL network, VODAFONE facilitated some more exciting offers than the reliance. In that situation the Reliance communication hesitated to change their HR policies and techniques. From the graphical representation of reliances communications profit from 2007 to 2012, we can easily determine that the profit is coming down in last two years comparing to the past this is due to the poor HR issues as mentioned above.The company is earning a high growth in 2008 and 2009 which is around 55000 million and it is dramatically falling down in the upcoming years.That means the company is facing some major HR issues and also high competition from other companies, so the organisation must change their HR policies eventually. SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THE HR ISSUES Nowdays telecommunication industry is facing high competition from other telecommunication companies, If the company has no good HR stratergies the company cannot exist in the high competative world.Reliance communication is facing some HR issues as mentioned above, to overcome this problems company must do some good HR restructuring process in the company .The first main issue is ; Cash and compensation issues- As it is a major problem the company must find a good solution to overcome this issue, the suggestion to solve this problem is to pay cash and compensation based on the experience of the employees.As mentioned above the company is paying a basic salary to each individual, first of all the company must change this basic payment method,and the compensation and benifits must be paid according to the experience and skills of each individual. So the company can reduce the cost of labour so the company can meet the compensation and benifits of each individual according to the profit earned by the company. Employee retention issues Retention of employees is another HR issue faced by the company, nowadays a lot of employees are leaving the company due to high pressure of work and lack of co-ordination between employees are the main employee retention issues faced by reliance communication, to reduce this problems reliance must provide good working enviornment to reduce the pressure of work, communication is another way to over come this problem good communication between the management and staff will make a good understanding between the employees and management, this will increase employees confidents and reduce the work pressure.A high rate of employees resigning their job and going to another companies who offer better working enviornment. Better co-ordination is the another way to improve employee retention,co-ordination will improve better relationship between employees and management.And this will result increase employees confidence and work efficiency. Poor HR policies- Due to high competition in communication industry lots of companies introducing new HR techniques to improve their company goodwill .Reliance communication is following the traditional HR policies and plans so the company is facing high market competition from other companies, to exists in the competative market company must improve their HR stratergies and policies.Nowadays companies are providing good offers to the employees so the company must realise the problems and try to overcome such issues.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Does Nuclear Deterrence Work In Preventing Conflict Politics Essay

Does Nuclear Deterrence Work In Preventing Conflict Politics Essay In the post world war II era there have been fewer wars (and no third world war since the second world war took place just 20 years after the first), today countries engage in dialogues in order to solve problems rather than blindly declaring war against each other. After the explosion of the first nuclear bomb by the US on Japan in Nagasaki and Hiroshima the world saw the destruction the bomb caused killing over 200,000 people in the two cities and the people who were affected by the bomb died because of radiation and the future generations were deformed at birth. The explosion of the bomb scared the world of the consequences of the bomb, no one not even the pilot of the plane carrying the bomb had any idea what would happen once he drops the bomb. He later wrote a book about the time during WWII, when the bombs exploded and he regretted the fact that he carried out the operation. The Nuclear deterrence theory is when a country which possesses a nuclear arsenal threatens its enemy nation (also a nuclear armed country) that it will retaliate if attacked. This theory is a strategy which is used to avoid armed conflicts between the countries. Examples of this is during the cold war (when this strategy was first adopted on a nuclear level) both the United States and the USSR used this strategy however this never resulted in the use of nuclear weapons. Another (recent) example of this is India and Pakistan (in 2001 the President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf had threatened India that it could use its nuclear weapons in case India attacks Pakistan) these countries use this strategy against one another . but both countries have never engaged in a nuclear war against one another. The total number of countries with nuclear weapons has increased to 7 the United States, Britain, Russia, China, France, India , Pakistan. However Israel has neither accepted nor denied the fact that they possess nuclear weapons although many analysts believe that they do. After 1945 the nuclear bomb has never been used again against a country. China built its nuclear arsenal in order to become a regional power and India built its weapon in order to threaten its enemy Pakistan. Pakistan also built its weapon in its defence, fearing a possible nuclear attack from the neighbouring India. It has been claimed that Israel has built a nuclear arsenal in order to defeat the threat of the Arab nations like Iran and Egypt whose President Nasser had threatened to attack the country at that time. Ever since the countries have built their weapons, there has been no serious war since each nuclear armed country fears that if they attack the enemy country, they will also suffer so, to some extent the possession of nuclear weapons has prevented a major war against the countries. However there has been nuclear standoffs between countries like India and Pakistan in the late 1990s and early 2000s. It is also said that both the countries had detonated their nuclear missil es ready to be fired. Today people also fear that the nuclear weapons may fall into the wrong hands example terrorist groups that could use the weapons for their personal gain and bomb their enemy countries this could lead to a conventional nuclear war that could harm the countries and lead to the deaths of millions or even billions of people. Israel has a reason to build a nuclear weapon since it is surrounded by enemy territory. Ever since the neighbouring countries have become aware of the fact that Israel has become a nuclear power, there has been no major or direct war by countries like Egypt and iran who always threaten to attack Israel. Also during the cold war period, there was no direct war against the USSR and the usa except for the mujahedeen war during the late 1970s to the 1980s. Even then the USSR refrained from using their nuclear weapons against Pakistan and the usa fearing retaliation from the USA. These are instances that have proved that nuclear deterrence has prevented nuclear conflict against countries. . This theory encourages proliferation since once a country possesses a nuclear weapon, they will always try and improve their weapons(in order to feel safe) and make duplicates, examples of this is both Pakistan and India who have conducted multiple tests of their missiles trying to improve their current models. Also countries like the US and Russia build missiles that could counter nuclear attacks. I fear for the future of the world today, the 6 billion people living on this earth today, if countries shed their nuclear weapons then the world will be a safe place again. I fear that this is not going to happen I fear that if a third world war breaks out, it will lead to the destruction of our planet resulting in over a billion deaths and the future generations of those affected to be deformed due to the radiation( all it needs is a spark that can be caused by an accidental activation of the nuclear weapon by a particular country and the country affected would retaliate leading to a nuclear war or if the leader of a nation possessing the weapon makes an irrational move by attacking its enemy would also lead to a nuclear war ). It could take us back to the Stone Age and destroy our civilization the reason being, over a thousand nuclear missiles would be detonated all around the world leading to destruction of land, loss of human life. Also the long term effects could also be deadly resulting in a change of the climate because of hyper global warming, food shortage due to destruction to agricultural land causing it to be infertile in fact poisonous. Therefore what needs to be done is that all the nuclear armed countries should decide before it is too late and regret like Albert Einstein ( who encouraged the then American President Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb before Germany succeeds in creating the atomic bomb) the consequences of the nuclear bomb, therefore all the countries should take this problem seriously and should avoid ignoring it by eliminating and dismantling all their nuclear weapons and make the world a nuclear free , a safe world once again!

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Power of Working Out Essay -- Exercise Self Image Papers

The Power of Working Out Wherever I go, whenever I go, whoever I see, I am always astonished by the way that people want to present themselves. The principle of working out reminds me of nothing else but a song titled â€Å" wherever, whenever, whoever â€Å" by Shakira. It is for the pure sense that everyone wants to look good and become popular by looking good. The media brings about popularity just by looking this so called â€Å" good. â€Å" Take for example Britney Spears, Christina Aguilara, Shakira, and other teen pop sensations. Many of these pop stars are not even old enough to drink, however they are making millions of dollars from their performances and cd’s that have sold. But it is not just the music that has created such popularity for them. It is without any doubt their appearance just as well. This ethnography will produce the answers to the many asked questions to reasons people even start working out, the multi effects of working out, and to produce the different outlooks of working out by different people. It is the purpose to produce a culture of working out from a masculine and feminine perspective. My research is based on where I work in the weight room located in the building of the JCC located in West Bloomfield, Michigan. It is a very big building perhaps the size of a large high school which is surrounded by a great amount of parking spaces. Inside the JCC there are different facilities. It has a Basketball court, a hall for doing big parties, a rink for roller hockey and the weight room that I am doing. People that are members of this JCC are able to use the weight room anytime they want as well as use the sauna, steam room, they have the luxury of having towels be provided for them a... ... I don’t try to impress the opposite sex as much as I used to. Although it is still nice to have people look at you while your working out I feel that staying fit and healthy is just as important as looking good. â€Å" With the help of my field notes, Keneth Pike’s explanations within etic and emic perspectives, and the interviews I did within these perspectives I was able to realize the true power of working out. The true reasoning that all people are different. Whether some are doing it to stay in shape or to look better, all are doing it for some soul purpose. America is all about working hard and striving to achieve. It is a place of freedom and opportunity. The weight room is an opportunity for people to look better, feel better, as well as socialize with other people. Works Cited: Pike Kenneth. â€Å" A Stereoscopic Window on The World, â€Å"

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Concretions :: essays research papers fc

Dating back to the 18th century concretions have been known as geologic curiosity’s due to the various sizes, shapes and compositions. Concretions have also been thought to be dinosaur eggs, extra-terrestrial debris, human artifacts and animal and plant fossils. Due to these curiosity’s I will try and enlighten you more on these in the following by explaining the process in which they are formed and explaining some locations where they can be found in large outcrops. â€Å"The word "concretion" is derived from the Latin "con"-- meaning "together" -- and "cresco" -- meaning "to grow."† Concretions are hard compact accumulations of mineral matter and are found inside sedimentary rocks. Some examples of this are Sandstone and in some weathered volcanic rock. Concretions come in many different shapes and the most common of the shapes is spherical or disk shaped. Concretions are the most varied-shaped rocks of the sedimentary world. The way concretions come to be is the mineral matter concentrates around the nucleus of a host rock. The nucleus is often organic such as a tooth or leaf or shell or fossil. As the mineral matter concentrates around the nucleus it forms harder zones known as nodules. Concretions are very odd in the sense that they very in size, shape, color and hardness. Often concretions are mistaken for bones, fossils, meteorites and other odd objects. They can be so small that it requires a magnifying glass to be visible or as large as 10 feet in diameter and weigh hundreds of pounds. Concretions can also have somewhat of regular shapes such as boxes, blocks, flat disks, pipes, cannon balls and have even been known to resemble parts of a human body such as a foot or ribs. Concretions are most commonly composed of calcite but sometimes can be composed of iron oxide or iron hydroxide such as goethite. But also concretions can be composed of other minerals ranging from siderite, ankerite, dolomite, pyrite, baryite and gypsum. Concretions form in many different ways. The box shape of some ironstone concretions most often depend on the way a sandstone or shale bed breaks up due to the action of weathering into regular blocks of various sizes. The way in which this separation takes place along natural planes of weakness in a rock such as a horizontal bedding surface and vertical joints. Before this process of separation, as well as during the separation ground water soaks into the rock and circulates through the planes of weakness making the rock more porous.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Waterfall Model

The waterfall model approach in project management has gotten its name due to the cascading effect of its stages; there is a progress from a certain stage to another like in the waterfall flow. The function and management undergo different stages and step-by-step procedure wherein in a certain stage you cannot jump to the next step without completing and perfecting the previous one, the initial stage serves a prerequisite to the next stage and so on.Also in this approach, once you completed a certain level or stage you can not go back to the prior stage. There is no leaping back and overlapping allowed between different phases. The waterfall model is also referred as the linear sequential model or the software life cycle. This model has eight distinct, sequential phases which are the system viability, system plan, outline design, detail design, coding, execution, and operation and maintenance(in sequential order). Each phase also has a justification or confirmation segments.In justif ication, the result is being tested whether it fits the operation used, meaning the result is being validated. In confirmation, the system structure is being verified to know if correct operations are applied. The model enforces disciplines as it requires the prior stage be completed first before you may proceed with the next phase, as each stage has its starting and ending point and progress can be categorically recognized. This approach is valuable in information technology for the better understanding of the whole system.The operations in information technology are sequential; you cannot understand the higher phase of the system without fully understanding the basics. The output of the previous stage will be the input for the next stage. Furthermore, the model has a sequence of activities that is clear, understandable and easy to follow which makes it easy for everyone to use. In addition, it will present a more accurate project management and control because the system requires completion and perfection of a certain stage before moving on to the next.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Managing Organisational Change

International Journal of Public Sector Management Emerald Article: Managing organisational change in the public sector Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency Ron Coram, Bernard Burnes Article information: To cite this document: Ron Coram, Bernard Burnes, (2001),†Managing organisational change in the public sector – Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency†, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 14 Iss: 2 pp. 94 – 110 Permanent link to this document: http://dx. doi. org/10. 108/09513550110387381 Downloaded on: 17-01-2013 References: This document contains references to 56 other documents Citations: This document has been cited by 14 other documents To copy this document: [email  protected] com This document has been downloaded 4884 times since 2005. * Users who downloaded this Article also downloaded: * Ron Coram, Bernard Burnes, (2001),†Managing organisational change in the public sector à ¢â‚¬â€œ Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency†, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 4 Iss: 2 pp. 94 – 110 http://dx. doi. org/10. 1108/09513550110387381 Ron Coram, Bernard Burnes, (2001),†Managing organisational change in the public sector – Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency†, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 14 Iss: 2 pp. 94 – 110 http://dx. doi. org/10. 1108/09513550110387381 Ron Coram, Bernard Burnes, (2001),†Managing organisational change in the public sector – Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency†, International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 4 Iss: 2 pp. 94 – 110 http://dx. doi. org/10. 1108/09513550110387381 Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by Edinburgh Napier University For Authors: If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service. Information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www. emeraldinsight. com/authors for more information. About Emerald www. emeraldinsight. om With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download.The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at http://www. emerald-library. com/ft IJPSM 1 4,2 94 Lessons from the privatisation of the Property Service Agency Manchester School of Management, UMIST, Manchester, UK Keywords Organizational change, Public sector management, Privatization, Government agencies, Public authority assets Abstract Whilst organisational change appears to be happening with increasing frequency and magnitude in both the public and private sectors, most of the major studies of change focus on the private sector and tend to derive their approaches to change from that sector.From a review of the literature, it is argued that there is no â€Å"one best way† to manage organisational change but that public sector organisations need to adopt an approach to change which matches their needs and situation. The article examines the privatisation of the Property Services Agency (PSA) in order to draw lessons as to how the public sector can and should manage change. It is shown that the privatisation was characterised by a lack of clarity, an over-emphasi s on changes to structures and procedures, and staff resistance.However, underpinning this was an inappropriate approach to change. The article concludes that the main lessons of the PSA's privatisation are that, in such circumstances, it is necessary to adopt an approach to change which incorporates both the structural and cultural aspects of change, and which recognises the need to appreciate and respond to staff fears and concerns. Managing organisational change in the public sector Ron Coram and Bernard Burnes The International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 14 No. 2, 2001, pp. 94-110. MCB University Press, 0951-3558 Introduction From Kurt Lewin's work in the 1940s to the present day, organisational change, as a systematic process, has moved from being a topic of interest to only a few academics and practitioners to one that is seen as lying at the core of organisational life (Senior, 1997; Stickland, 1998). However, whilst organisational change appears to be happenin g with increasing frequency and magnitude in both the public and private sectors, most of the major studies of and approaches to change  ± with some notable exceptions (e. g.Pettigrew et al. , 1992)  ± focus on the private sector and tend to derive their approaches to change from that sector (e. g. Kanter et al. , 1992; Kotter, 1996; Mabey and Mayon-White, 1993; Pettigrew, 1985; Smith, 1997). Not only does this underplay the enormous changes which have taken place and are continuing to take place in the public sector, but it also ignores the need to develop approaches to change which are in tune with the circumstances in which public service organisations now find themselves (Flynn and Williams, 1997; Salauroo and Burnes, 1998).Though there have been some well-publicised examples of public sector change projects which have gone badly wrong (Brindle, 1999), there is no evidence to show that public sector managers are, inherently, any less capable of managing change than their pri vate sector counterparts (Ferlie et al. , 1996). However, the challenges they face are different from those of their private sector counterparts, especially in terms of public accountability, demonstrating value for money, and in meeting the increasing expectations, regarding service levels and quality, of both the general public and politicians.Over the last 20 years, one of the most significant challenges that public sector managers have had to cope with, and one which has taken them into unknown territory, has been that the boundary between the public and private sector has become increasingly hazy (Crouch and Streeck, 1997; Flynn, 1993). In the UK, which has tended to be at the forefront of these developments, some public services, or parts of them, have been and are being put out to private tender (e. g. he management of some schools and local education authorities); in other cases, public bodies have been turned into quasi-independent organisations (e. g. the Benefits Agency); and, in other instances, some organisations have been and are being privatised in their entirety (e. g. public utilities). All these forms of organisational change throw up their own dilemmas and challenges, and they all require an approach to change which is appropriate to the circumstances involved. However, as Dunphy and Stace (1993) argued, there is no one approach which is suitable for all circumstances and objectives.This article examines one particular and major form of organisational change which continues to have a large impact on the public sector: privatisation. It focuses upon the Property Services Agency (PSA) which, until its privatisation in the early 1990s, was responsible for the construction, maintenance and management of all the UK government's buildings and property. By presenting a case study of the privatisation of the PSA, the article seeks to draws lessons as to how the public sector can and should manage change.The article begins by reviewing the literature on change management. In particular, it draws attention to the need to recognise that there is no â€Å"one best way† to manage organisational change. This is followed by a description of the background to our research on the PSA, and the presentation of the case study itself. As the subsequent discussion section shows, the privatisation of the PSA was characterised by a lack of clarity, an over-emphasis on changes to structures and procedures, and staff resistance.Underpinning this was an inappropriate approach to change. In conclusion, the article argues that the main lessons of the PSA's privatisation are that, in such circumstances, there is a need to adopt an approach to change which balances the structural and cultural aspects of change, especially the need to appreciate and respond to staff fears and concerns. Approaches to change management As Stickland (1998, p. 14) remarks: F F Fthe problem with studying change is that it parades across many subject domains under u merous guises, such as transformation, development, metamorphosis, transmutation, evolution, regeneration, innovation, revolution and transition to name but a few. Organisational change in the public sector 95 IJPSM 14,2 96 Especially over the last 20 years or so, as the pace and magnitude of organisational change appears to have accelerated, there has been a significant increase in the number of approaches to change management on offer (see Buchanan and Boddy, 1992; Buchanan and Storey, 1997; Burnes, 2000; Cummings and Worley, 1997; Dawson, 1994; Kanter et al. 1992; Pettigrew et al. , 1992; Senior, 1997; Stace and Dunphy, 1994; Stickland, 1998; Wilson, 1992). Nevertheless, most writers tend to fall into one of two broad camps: those who support the Planned approach to change and those who espouse the Emergent approach. The Planned approach originated in the 1940s from the work of Kurt Lewin (Lewin, 1947). Subsequently, it was adopted by, and became the central focus of, the Organiz ation Development (OD) movement (French and Bell, 1995).However, in the 1980s, as a result of increasing criticism of the Planned approach, the Emergent approach to change came to the fore. Its proponents argued that the Emergent approach was more suitable for the dynamic and unpredictable conditions faced by organisations in the late twentieth century. The following briefly examines, and attempts to put into perspective, both these approaches to change in order to prepare the ground for presenting and discussing the privatisation of the PSA.Planned change: summary and criticisms Planned change is an iterative, cyclical, process involving diagnosis, action and evaluation, and further action and evaluation. It is an approach which maintains that once change has taken place, it must be self-sustaining (i. e. safe from regression). The purpose of Planned change is to improve the effectiveness of the human side of the organisation by focusing on the performance of groups and teams. Cent ral to Planned change is the stress placed on the collaborative nature of the hange effort: the organisation, managers, recipients of change and change agents jointly diagnose the organisation's problem and jointly plan and design the specific changes. Underpinning Planned change, and indeed the origins of the OD movement as a whole, is a strong humanist and democratic orientation and an emphasis on improving organisational effectiveness. The main criticisms levelled against the Planned approach to change are, as Burnes and Salauroo (1995) point out, as follows.First, Planned change was developed specifically for, and in response to, topdown, autocratic, rigid, rule-based organisations operating in a somewhat predictable and controlled environment. However, an increasing number of writers argue that, in the turbulent and chaotic world in which we live, such assumptions are increasingly tenuous and that organisational change is more a continuous and open-ended process than a set of d iscrete and self-contained events (Garvin, 1993; Hatch, 1997; Nonaka, 1988; Peters, 1989; Stacey, 1993; Wooten and White, 1999).Second, and on a similar note, a number of writers have criticised the Planned approach for its emphasis on incremental and isolated change, and its inability to incorporate radical, transformational change (Dunphy and Stace, 1993; Harris, 1985; Miller and Friesen, 1984; Schein, 1985). Third, Planned change is based on the assumption that common agreement can be reached, and that all the parties involved in a particular change project have a willingness and interest in doing so.This assumption appears to ignore organisational conflict and politics, or at least assumes that problem issues can be easily identified and resolved. However, as Pfeffer (1981; 1992) showed, conflict and personal and group self-interest do play an important role in what changes take place and who benefits from them. Fourth, it assumes that one type of approach to change is suitable for all organisations, all situations and all times. Dunphy and Stace (1993, p. 905), on the other hand, argue that: Turbulent times demand different responses in varied circumstances.So managers and consultants need a model of change that is essentially a â€Å"situational† or â€Å"contingency model†, one that indicates how to vary change strategies to achieve â€Å"optimum fit† with the changing environment. Organisational change in the public sector 97 Leading OD advocates, as might be expected, dispute these criticisms and point to the way that Planned change has tried to incorporate issues such as power and politics and the need for organisational transformation (Cummings and Worley, 1997; French and Bell, 1995).Nevertheless, as criticisms of the Planned approach mounted, supporters of the Emergent approach gained ground. Emergent change: summary and criticisms There are many writers who have contributed to the development of the Emergent approach, notably Dawson (1994), Kanter et al. (1992), Kotter (1996), Pettigrew (1985) and Wilson (1992). Unlike the supporters of the Planned approach, the main proponents of the Emergent approach are a much more diverse group who are separated by both geographic and disciplinary divides. Nevertheless, they would, more or less, agree that the main tenets of Emergent change are as follows: .Organisational change is a continuous process of experiment and adaptation aimed at matching an organisation's capabilities to the needs and dictates of a dynamic and uncertain environment. . Though this is best achieved through a multitude of (mainly) small- to medium-scale incremental changes, over time these can lead to a major re-configuration and transformation of an organisation. . Change is a multi-level, cross-organisation process that unfolds in an iterative and messy fashion over a period of years and comprises a series of interlocking projects. . Change is a political-social process and not an analytic al-rational one. The role of managers is not to plan or implement change per se, but to create or foster an organisational structure and climate which encourages and sustains experimentation, learning and risk-taking, and IJPSM 14,2 . 98 . to develop a workforce that will take responsibility for identifying the need for change and implementing it. Although managers are expected to become facilitators rather than doers, they also have the prime responsibility for developing a collective vision or common purpose which gives direction to their organisation, and within which the appropriateness of any proposed change can be judged.The key organisational activities which allow these elements to operate successfully are: information-gathering  ± about the external environment and internal objectives and capabilities; communication  ± the transmission, analysis and discussion of information; and learning  ± the ability to develop new skills, identify appropriate responses and draw kn owledge from their own and others' past and present actions. Though not always stated explicitly, the case for an Emergent approach to change is based on the assumption that all organisations operate in a turbulent, dynamic and unpredictable environment.Therefore, if the external world is changing in a rapid and uncertain way, organisations need to be continuously scanning their environment in order to identify developments and respond appropriately. Though ultimately leading to organisational transformation, to be successful, it is argued, change needs to emerge locally and incrementally in order to respond to threats and opportunities thrown up by environmental instability. Because this is a continuous, open-ended and bottom-up process, the Planned approach to change is inappropriate.This leads to the first of three major criticisms of the Emergent approach: it is specifically founded on the assumption that all organisations operate in a dynamic environment which requires continuo us transformation. It is, by its own definition, not applicable to organisations operating in stable environments where fine-tuning is the order of the day, or those whose circumstances require major changes through the use of rapid and coercive measures.The second criticism relates to the difference between these two approaches. The Planned approach is attacked because of its advocacy of â€Å"Refreezing† organisations after they have been changed (Kanter et al. , 1992). However, if one examines the process of change advocated by, for example, Dawson (1994), Kotter (1996) and Pettigrew et al. (1992), though they argue to the contrary, they do speak of change as a â€Å"transition† process which does have a beginning, middle and end. Indeed, as Hendry (1996, p. 24) comments: Scratch any account of creating and managing change and the idea that change is a threestage process which necessarily begins with a process of unfreezing will not be far below the surface. The fin al criticism concerns the emphasis that advocates of the Emergent approach place on the political and cultural aspects of change. Though undoubtedly politics and culture do play a role in the change process, a number of writers have begun to criticise what they regard as the overemphasis placed on these aspects of change. Hendry (1996, p. 21), for example, argues that: â€Å"The management of change has become F F F overfocused on the political aspects of change†, whilst Collins (1998, p. 100), voicing concerns of his own and of other researchers, argues that: F F F in reacting to the problems and critiques of [the Planned approach], managers and practitioners have swung from a dependence on under-socialized models and explanations of change and instead have become committed to the arguments of, what might be called, oversocialized models of change. Organisational change in the public sector 99Therefore, though it has apparent advantages over the Planned approach, or rather i t is applicable to situations for which Planned change is not suitable, an examination of the Emergent approach reveals that it not free from serious criticism. Putting change into perspective In examining the Planned and Emergent approaches to change, what we can see is that they focus on different aspects of organisations and are applicable to different situations. The Planned approach is primarily aimed at improving group effectiveness, tends to have a top-down orientation and is most suitable for stable environments.The Emergent approach, on the other hand, tends to focus on organisational transformation through continuous change and seems more suited to turbulent environments. This means that, despite their other strengths and weaknesses, both are essentially situational approaches: suitable only for particular situations. In addition, it is also clear that, even taken together, the two approaches do not cover all the broad spectrum of change events which organisations encounte r. Senior (1997), for example, rawing on the work of Grundy (1993), identifies three categories of change: â€Å"smooth incremental†  ± covering slow, systematic, evolutionary change; â€Å"bumpy incremental†  ± pertaining to periods where the smooth flow of change accelerates; and â€Å"discontinuous change†. Cummings and Worley (1997) identify a continuum running from incremental change to quantum change. Dunphy and Stace (1992), in a similar but more detailed way, identify a four-stage change continuum that comprises: fine-tuning, incremental adjustment, modular transformation and corporate transformation.Storey (1992) offers a four-fold typology of change: (1) Top-down systemic change. This is aimed at transforming the organisation. (2) Piecemeal initiatives. These are devised and implemented by departments or sections in an unconnected fashion. (3) Bargaining for change. This is where a series of targets are jointly agreed between managers and workers, but are pursued in a piecemeal fashion. (4) Systemic jointism. This is where managers and workers agree a total package of changes designed to achieve organisational transformation.IJPSM 14,2 100 Kanter et al. (1992), addressing the issue of transformational change, have noted that it can be achieved either by a Bold Stroke approach (rapid overall change) or a Long March approach (incremental change leading to transformation over an extended period of time). In a similar vein, Beer and Nohria (2000) make an interesting contribution to the change debate. Based on over 40 years of studying the nature of corporate change, they identify two basic archetypes, or theories of change: Theory E and Theory O.The main objective of Theory E change is to maximise shareholder value. It is applied in situations where an organisation's performance has diminished to such an extent that its main shareholders demand major and rapid change to improve the organisation's financial performance. Typically this is a â€Å"hard† approach based on downsizing, divestment of non-core or low-performing businesses, and the heavy use of financial incentives. Theory O, on the other hand, is also aimed at improving an organisation's performance but his is more a â€Å"soft† approach which is based on developing the organisation's culture and its human capabilities, and promoting organisational learning. Beer and Nohria (2000) believe that both of these are valid models of change but that both have their flaws. Theory E can achieve short-term financial gains but at the cost of denuding an organisation of the human capabilities and organisational culture necessary for long-term survival. Theory O, whilst focusing on these, falls into the trap of not restructuring to concentrate on core activities, thus failing to deliver shareholder value.To achieve the gains of both these approaches, whilst avoiding the pitfalls, Beer and Nohria advocate using these in tandem by focusing on the ra pid restructuring elements of Theory E but following this with the human capability development offered by Theory O. Although similar to Kanter et al. ‘s (1992) â€Å"Bold Strokes† and â€Å"Long March†, this idea goes beyond most other writers by pointing out that it is possible and sometimes necessary to combine approaches to change, rather than arguing for some sort of universal approach.In concluding this review of the literature on organisational change, three issues need to be emphasised, which are as follows: (1) There are a wide variety of approaches to change, though some tend to be more popular than others. (2) As Burnes (1996) argues, there is no â€Å"one best way† to manage change. All the approaches on offer appear to be situational, i. e. limited in terms of the circumstances in which they are effective. Therefore, managers need to choose an approach which is suitable for their situation rather than assuming that what worked in the past will also work in the future. 3) In some situations, it may be necessary to combine, either concurrently or sequentially, different approaches to change. Having identified the main issues with regard to the literature on change, we can now proceed to examine how the PSA managed change in practice. This will commence with a brief description of the background to our research, and the methods employed. Background and methods This article is based on research carried out between 1995 and 1998 by the authors into the process and consequences of the privatisation of the Property Services Agency.The research had two main objectives: (1) To identify the reasons for, and the process of, the privatisation of the PSA. (2) Post-privatisation, to examine the impact of the new arrangements on relations between government departments and the newly-privatised PSA. As mentioned in the Introduction, this article is concerned with the first objective, the process of privatisation. For a review of the imp act of privatisation on relations between government departments and the privatised PSA, see Burnes and Coram (1999).Looking at the design of the research and the methods used to study the changes at the PSA, the aim of the research was to construct a mainly qualitative case study of what took place. This was based on principles and methods of research advocated by writers such as Denzin and Lincoln (1998), Robson (1993) and Yin (1994). Though documentary evidence was collected, such as press reports, extracts from parliamentary debates, internal PSA documents and the National Audit Office reports into the sale of the PSA (NAO, 1995; 1996), the main source of data came from interviews with those most closely involved with the process.These fell into five groups: (1) Senior civil servants within the responsible for managing and privatising the PSA. (2) Senior civil servants responsible for managing and procuring property and property services for government departments. (3) Senior ci vil servants in the bodies responsible for advising departments on purchasing policy. (4) Directors and operational staff in the privatised companies, the majority of whom were former PSA employees. (5) The Civil Service trade unions involved in the privatisation negotiations.In total, some 50 individuals were interviewed. The interviews were taperecorded and transcripts sent to the interviewees for checking and correction. In addition, a draft of the final report of the research was sent to the interviewees for comment. These data formed the basis of the following description of the privatisation process. Organisational change in the public sector 101 IJPSM 14,2 102 The privatisation of the Property Services Agency (PSA) Background The origins of the PSA can be traced to 1962 when the Ministry of PublicBuildings and Works was made responsible for maintaining all the UK government's civil buildings. A year later, the Ministry was merged with the Works Directorates of the Admiralty, War Office and Air Ministry. The merger increased the Ministry's workforce to over 60,000. With the creation of the Department of the Environment (DoE) in 1970, it was decided that the responsibility for construction and maintenance services should become the responsibility of a separate agency and thus the Property Services Agency was born.Its role was to: F F F provide, manage, maintain, and furnish the property used by the government, including defence establishments, offices, courts, research laboratories, training centres and land (PSA, 1988, inside cover). In the 1960s and 1970s, few questioned whether or not such activities were best carried out by the public sector, but in the 1980s the tide of opinion began to turn (Crouch and Streeck, 1997). Claims of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste in the UK public services were nothing new (Chapman, 1978; Fulton, 1968; Plowden, 1961).However, what was new, with the election of Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister in 1979, was that tac kling â€Å"bloated, wasteful, overbureaucratic, and underperforming† public services became the centrepiece of government policy (Ferlie et al. , 1996, p. 11). Subsequently, successive Conservative governments attempted to deliver better value for money in public services through measures such as privatisation, outsourcing and compulsory competitive tendering (Flynn, 1993; Horton, 1996).Not surprisingly, given its size and importance, but most of all given the fact that it seemed to be carrying out a role that in other sectors of the economy was carried out by the private sector, the PSA became a prime target for reform. The process of privatisation In retrospect, it is possible to see that the process of privatising the PSA went through six key stages and began well in advance of the actual announcement that it was to be privatised: . Stage 1.In order to increase the commercial efficiency of the PSA, in 1986 the government appointed the consultancy firm Deloitte to develop and introduce new accounting and management information systems. These new systems were designed to allow the PSA to operate along private sector lines and to abandon public sector practices which were seen as uncommercial. . Stage 2. In 1987, it was announced that, from April 1988, civilian departments of government could take responsibility for commissioning their own construction projects with a value of over ? 150,000.The Ministry of Defence was allowed to follow suit in April 1990. In effect, . . . . this meant that the PSA was going to have to bid alongside private sector companies for government work. Stage 3. In 1988, the Secretary of State for the Environment announced that the PSA would in future operate on a commercial basis. This is to say that its income, and indeed its survival, would depend on gaining work from government departments in the face of private sector competition. To facilitate this, the PSA was restructured into a number of separate business functions.In addition, in order to promote a more commercial orientation, a Business Development Directorate was established within the PSA. The consultants Price Waterhouse were appointed to operate alongside the new Directorate to assist the PSA's commercial development by, among other things, training staff in business accounting, financial management, business planning, people management, customer care and marketing. Stage 4. In September 1989, the government announced that the PSA was to be privatised.In June 1990, the legislation necessary to enable this to take place was passed. Stage 5. In October 1990, in preparation for privatisation, the PSA was restructured into three main businesses: PSA Projects, PSA Building Management (which was eventually split into five separate companies), and PSA International (which, in the end, was closed down rather than sold). Stage 6. PSA Projects was privatised in 1992. This was followed in 1993 by the sale of the five companies which comprised PSA Buil ding Management. Organisational change in the public sector 103The above presents the privatisation of the PSA as a relatively straightforward and well-planned process. However, this is far from the reality of what happened. First, it must be recognised that most of the above actions were imposed on the PSA rather than arising from the decisions of its own management. Second, the six stages focused very much on changes to structures and procedures whilst paying little attention to the need for attitudinal, behavioural and cultural changes or, indeed, the reaction of the PSA's staff to the notion of privatisation.Finally, as the following will explain, the move to privatise the PSA was far slower and much messier than either the government or the PSA's management had allowed for. The pace of privatisation As the following quotation from a director of one of the privatised companies indicates, the privatisation of the PSA took longer, and was more difficult, than expected: The privati sation process was a very lengthy process.It was much longer than it was originally intended to be and meant that the natural unease and nervousness that occurs during such periods was prolonged. IJPSM 14,2 104 The main reasons for this slowness were twofold. Lack of strategic direction. At first, the PSA's Board appeared to treat privatisation as a standard public sector change programme which could be planned in advance, executed in a straightforward way with few unforeseen problems, and which staff would accept, even if they did not like it. However, this proved to be far from the case.The PSA's Board brought in a firm of consultants to help them to clarify the PSA's strategic direction but, as this remark by PSA's then Deputy Chief Executive demonstrates, the result seemed somewhat unfocused: For example, we did a lot of work on objectives. I don't think I can remember what we boiled it down to in the end, F F F something like: to preserve the maximum number of viable longterm j obs. Whatever the merits or not of the work the Board did, the middle and lower reaches of the PSA seemed more alarmed than consoled by developments.It was also the case that even where positive decisions were taken by the top, such as a commitment to provide retraining and outplacement support for staff, they found it difficult to put them into practice. One former PSA Director stated that: There were a few things like that [the training] where I think the best intentions at the top were weakened by people underneath, and I didn't know why. The difficulties faced by top management in developing a new strategy for the PSA and in pushing forward the pace of privatisation were threefold.The first was that though, as civil servants, they had been brought up in a stable environment which operated by well-understood rules, they found themselves having to transform the organisation into a commercial entity that could be successful whilst not understanding the nature of competition nor eve r feeling in control of the pace of change. The second was that, having been used to running a bureaucratic organisation with compliant staff, they found themselves attempting to construct a more flexible and entrepreneurial body with an increasingly disgruntled and worried workforce.The last was that, their actions were being dictated and judged by their political masters, whose sole concern appeared to be to privatise the PSA as quickly as possible, no matter what it cost or who was offended. Therefore, senior managers found themselves caught between the politicians' desire for speed and their staff's desire for job security, both of which clashed with their own cautious and ruledriven approach to change. Resistance by PSA employees. This was the second main reason for the slowness of the privatisation process.The majority of PSA employees did not want their organisation privatised. Not only did they value the stability and certainty that working for a government body gave them, b ut also most believed that the PSA had little chance of survival in the private sector. As one of their trade union officials put it: The implications of privatisation for staff, in respect of pensions, severance terms, general pay and conditions, were enormous. What happens if the organisation who took them over went bust at some later date?The result of this uncertainty and fear for their future was that staff sought to resist and delay privatisation. On an individual basis, many staff resisted by withholding information and slowing down the process wherever possible. For example, some staff basically gave up work and devoted all their time to searching for another job, whilst others fabricated rumours. There was also a general increase in union militancy. On a collective basis, the PSA staff trade union decided to oppose the privatisation.As one union official commented: F F F we felt and still feel that if you are providing a service for the public sector and using taxpayers' mo ney, that it's quite inappropriate to have this work carried out by organisations making a profit. Organisational change in the public sector 105 The official also went on to state that it was union policy to delay the privatisation: F F F the idea was that the longer it took, the longer people were in the public sector.There were issues about information, about negotiation over what the implications of the sale would be for staff, and obviously, from that point of view, the idea of slowing the process down wasn't one that we were objecting to. Eventually this resistance became overt and staff took industrial action, including working to rule and strikes. In a belated attempt to defuse staff opposition to privatisation, the government devised a staff choice scheme whereby PSA staff could choose to transfer fully to the privatised companies, to be seconded to them for a limited period, or to take early retirement.The staff choice scheme also protected employees' pension entitlements. Though this defused some of the opposition, it was not until after the 1992 General Election, when many people  ± mistakenly as it turned out  ± expected a change of government, that staff finally accepted the inevitability of privatisation. As can be seen, the PSA's privatisation was characterised overall by uncertainty, delay and a lack of any clear strategic direction (other than to privatise it). The entire process was driven by one unquestionable aim: privatisation.The process, cost and consequences of privatisation were all subordinate, and, in some senses, irrelevant to achieving that one aim. Though clear in itself, the aim provided no guidance as to how it was to be achieved nor, importantly, did it offer any direction for what was to take place afterwards. As for the PSA's strategy, instead of clarity and purpose, what developed was a stream of unplanned, ad hoc and muddled decisions made in reaction to events, rather than in anticipation of them.Discussion Though it is not the purpose of this article to evaluate the merits or otherwise of the decision to privatise the PSA, it is important to recognise that the wave of privatisation seen in the UK in the 1980s and 1990s was essentially based on a IJPSM 14,2 106 political belief that the private sector, driven by competitive pressures, was far better at delivering value-for-money services than the public sector (Crouch and Streeck, 1997; Ferlie et al. , 1996; Flynn, 1993).Consequently, the privatisation of the PSA, like other privatisations, was not driven by some form of rationaleconomic decision-making process, but by a political agenda aimed at transferring parts of the public sector to the private sector. Consequently, successive governments were less concerned with the process of change, or indeed its cost, than with ensuring that the transfer took place. It is not surprising, then, that the PSA's staff should have felt resentment and a sense of betrayal that, after many years of public serv ice, their careers and livelihoods were threatened by what appeared to them to be ideological dogma.This put the senior managers of the PSA in a situation for which they were ill-prepared and had little experience. They had to plan for, and get staff to comply with, a proposition for which they themselves seemed to have little sympathy and over which, in the final analysis, they felt they had little control. To achieve privatisation, they attempted to apply the sort of rational-planned approach to change which had worked for them when undertaking change in the past. But past changes had been undertaken within a relatively stable public sector environment, with a compliant workforce and with few potential losers.Unfortunately, the government's policy in this instance was driven by mainly ideology rather than rationality. It was designed to remove the PSA from the public sector, the workforce were afraid and hostile, rather than compliant, and there were a great number of potential lo sers. It was also the case that the senior echelons of the PSA appeared themselves to be apprehensive and lacking in support for the privatisation. Therefore, not surprisingly, senior managers found it difficult to devise and put their plans into practice when faced with an uncertain environment and a hostile staff.As time passed, three factors came to the fore which ensured that privatisation was completed: (1) In order to achieve its objective of privatising the PSA, the government eventually recognised it would need to be pragmatic as to how this was achieved and its cost. (2) The PSA management abandoned its planned approach to change and, basically, adopted a reactive and ad hoc approach to overcoming the barriers to privatisation  ± dealing with them as they arose and being prepared to be flexible in most aspects of the process. 3) After the 1992 General Election produced no change of government or policy, it became clear to staff that the privatisation of the PSA was inevit able. As can be seen, in terms of strategic change, this was an instance where there was a clear, though limited, objective, but no clear or consistent strategy for achieving it. It is highly debatable whether or not the privatisation of the PSA has produced any measurable benefits to the UK taxpayer. Certainly the government's own National Audit Commission (NAO, 1995; 1996) was critical of the cost and process of the PSA's privatisation.Also, whilst most organisations in the private sector appear convinced that closer, less hostile and longer-term working relationships between customers and suppliers are the way to achieve best value for money, this does not seem to be the case in terms of the public sector's relations with the privatised PSA or other companies in the construction industry (Burnes and Coram, 1999). As far as change management was concerned, what we can see is that the PSA's managers attempted to apply the sort of quick, top-down, mechanistic approach to change whic h had previously worked well in the relatively stable world of the public sector.However, the PSA was moving into unknown territory, the private sector, which was far more dynamic and unpredictable than it was used to. Also, it needed to achieve two forms of change at the same time: changes to structures, practices and procedures; and changes to attitudes, behaviour and culture. Whilst the traditional top-down public sector approach might be suitable to the former, provided the environment was relatively stable, it was not suitable to the latter, regardless of the nature of the environment.This meant that the PSA's leaders were attempting to take their staff into unknown territory, using an inappropriate approach and in a direction with which even they were apparently ill at ease. Conclusions As the literature review argued, there is no â€Å"one best way† to manage change. Just because an approach was deemed appropriate and worked over a period of time does not mean it will work in all situations or for all time (Burnes, 1996). A top-down, planned approach may well be suitable for a stable, public sector bureaucracy, but if a need arises to move the same bureaucracy into the private sector, the same approach is unlikely to work.As Dunphy and Stace (1993, p. 905) remarked: â€Å"Turbulent times demand different responses F F F† Although the privatisation of the PSA is now a past event, the nature of the public sector and whether further elements of it should be privatised, or required to become more market-orientated, still form part of the current political agenda in most countries. Consequently, the lessons of the PSA's privatisation are still very relevant to those who make public policy and to those charged with carrying out the changes which such policies require of them. The main lessons are as follows.First, to prepare services for privatisation, or to operate on a more commercial basis, requires both structural and cultural change. As All aire and Firsirotu (1984) showed, to achieve both requires different approaches with different timescales. A similar point was made by Beer and Nohria (2000), cited earlier, who call for a combination of Theory E and Theory O approaches to achieve such transformations. To focus on only one of these, as was the case with the PSA, is unlikely to achieve the benefits which policy makers expect, and taxpayers increasingly demand. Organisational change in the public sector 107IJPSM 14,2 108 Second, there is a need to win over staff, or at the very least to address their concerns and fears. A key element in this is the need for policy makers to move beyond basing their decisions mainly on dogma or political creed, and instead, as O'Toole and Jordan (1995, p. 190) recommend, to base them upon â€Å"a rigorous identification of weaknesses and a considered plan to remedy those defects†. As far as the PSA case was concerned, there was never really any attempt to win over staff or, unti l quite late in the process, to address their fears and concerns.The main reason for this was that the PSA's senior managers did not know how to promote a decision based on dogma, one which they had played no part in developing, and over whose consequences they had significant reservations. Third, it should also be noted that the PSA's management themselves did not possess the skills or experience to manage such a change process. 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