Sunday, January 27, 2019

Lame Deers story “ Alone on the Hilltop” Essay

In square cervids story Alone on the brow he recalls the moment in life when his first hanblechia occurred at the develop of 16. The first scene begins on the hilltop where stultify deer had been brought by Chest, the medicine man. Lame Deer has been left all altogether on the hilltop for 4 days nights with no water or food. The tho if thing that he had with him where his star blanket which his grandmother had knitted for him, a pipe with kinnickinnick, and gourd which contained xl pieces of his grandmothers flesh and tiny stones picked up from an emmet heap. Lame Deer knew though that after all of this was over he would no longer be a child, he would be a man and he would be given a mans name. He started to smoke the pipe he began to odor comforted and his worship started to diminish. He describes that he matt-up like his forefathers, whom this pipe once belonged to, where with him on the hilltop and that he was no longer alone.The thought of not beingness able to have vision still worried Lame Deer though. He wanted to be able to become a yuwipi merely he knew that he could only become that was what his vision was. If he dreamt of hollo Beings then that would make him a heyoka , a clown. Night time had arrived and began to ascertain the overwhelming presence of a big bird. He became overwhelmed by the tonicity of the bird touching him and grasped the rattle in order to calm his fears. and then he began to smoke from his pipe and began to sing and pray. He felt himself change, and began to bring out human voices that were not ordinary.A voice began to speak to him and he felt comforted by them, he then saw his greatgrandfather Lame Deer and he understood that his grandfather wanted him to bear his name. After this Lame Deer described feeling his nagi inside of him and a bureau surging throughout his body. Lame deer knew his vision had been fulfilled and that he would become a wicasa wakan. Time was lost for Lame Deer and onwards he knew i t Chest had come for him. His hanblechia was complete and it was time for them to interpret his visions. He had also been given his mans name Lame Deer. panoramaThis in my opinion was a very interesting account of American Indian rituals. Lame Deer did a great job on comparing and contrasting the white folks way of life with his own. He told us how Indian children are typically never left alone which gives us a break away understanding on why he was so afraid of being alone on the hilltop. I feel like in this story I really got a better understanding of the Indian way of life. They search to be very firm knit group who value tradition above everything. Family seems to be the most(prenominal) important theme as demonstrated by his grandmothers willingness to cut forty pieces of her own flesh in order to make the rattle. This whole perspective about them is admirable but at the same time I feel like they dont really take both actual logic into account. The whole vision determine s your life labor seem really fallible in my opinion.I cant really relate to this story in the sense that I have never really experienced whatever of these things as im not a Sioux. I do think though that this story can be colligate into our modern world in the sense that many kids are pushed into choosing a life career at a relatively young age. Lame Deer was only 16 at the time but that is only a mere two years younger than kids today. To some terminus I found admirable that he at such a young age had already known what his lifes craft was. Overall the story was very enjoyable to read and it gave me very goodish insight on the tribulations of being a Indian.Vocabularygourd- the hard-shelled fruit of any of various plants,whose dried shell is used for bowls and other utensils

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Healthcare in Netherlands vs. U.S. Essay

Completing this assignment will require anywhere from 60-80 minutes. It will count as two response compositions. This documentary is a slick strike in indemnity making. It helps us to learn nearly the mechanisms of making laws at the national level for high profile policies in America. In particular, this case focuses our attention on the role of powerful and slopped interest groups in Washington, and how they can easily influence government and sweep laws to their benefit. It also helps us to lean almost who has power over and in government, who is represented, who has voice, influence, and who doesnt. Please, watch Obamas Deal PBS Documentary Exposing Corruption and the subroutine of Big Money and Powerful Lobby in American indemnity Making ProcessYou may start filling out the questionnaire fleck you are watching the documentary. Simply copy these 14 questions into your response paper and answer them in the order of appearance. 1. What immediate problem did the presiden t prompt into when initiating the health care crystalize? 2. Obamas administration believed that taking on a healthcare reform is a test of what in American government activity? According to Obama, it was intended to prove what? 3. Who opposed the healthcare reform downstairs both Clinton and Obama? Who stood to lose from the healthcare reform? 4. What did the propaganda ads funded by insurance buttonhole advertise to the American national well-nigh the healthcare reform? Whose interests did they lapse in mind when doing that? 5. Who could get to the congressional hearings on the healthcare reform? Was there anyone representing 50 jillion uninsured Americans at the congressional hearings?6. spell powerful insurance anteroomists initi ally stated that they would support the reform, what did they request in return and why? (hint they wanted some feature added to the snoot, what is that feature?) 7. Senator Baucus current $2.5 millions from insurance interest groups to do what? Whose interests did he represent? 8. Who is denied a put at the negotiation table about the healthcare? Who is removed physically by guards from the press conference in the White House? 9. When in Congress senator Baucus introduced Medicare prescription do drugs bill, it was a payoff to drug and pharmaceutical industries for what? Who did the bill benefit (financially)c? 10. Insurance lobbyists (Ignani being one boastful player) spend tens of millions of dollars to defeat the health bill through ads that created panic, scare, rumors, and etc. wherefore? What is at stake for insurance and pharmaceutical lobbyists if a meaningful healthcare reform took place?11. The answer to this question would require some theory on your part why do you think many Americans bought the minus c adenosine monophosphateaign ads against the healthcare reform that were manufactured by the insurance lobby? Why did some ordinary Americans end up siding with rapacious insurance and pharmac eutical lobbyists, even though saving money and health of working Americans is the last thing that those lobbyists cared about? 12. What does this documentary show us about the role of money and powerful interests in American authorities? For whose benefits laws are do or blocked? Based on this case study, what would you say about who controls American political process? 13. What have you wise to(p) from this documentary that either reinforces or contradicts information from the textbook chapter 11 about interest groups? 14. Anything else you tender to state about your reaction to this case study in policy makingBackground and further readings on healthcare policy in the U.S. health care is one of the most contentious policy areas in American politics. Some of the most conspicuous issues with healthcare preparation in our country are -medical bills are the leading cause of bankruptcy for middle class and low income households in America -Insurance premiums and co pays are too h igh and limits for patients with preexisting conditions are numerous insurance application is fairly unregulated and has monopoly on setting the rules of the game on who and how they apportion. -50 million Americans remain uninsured, with elderly, students/young, and workers in low paid or part fourth dimension jobs that offer no health insurance benefits most affected.We do not have a public health option that would offer a choice aside from private care, just like we have public education/universal education for any American who does not wish to spend tons on private education - spell we have such(prenominal) programs as Medicare (for the elderly), Medicaid (for low income families), and emergency rooms, they do not cover all those who need medical care states became strict with qualifications for such programs, cutting financial support and eliminating many Americans from qualifying. Emergency rooms, if you have been to one, do not offer feature care, preventative treatm ent, and many other essential services. Insurance does not cover pre-existing conditions insurance plans have limits and co-pays that many people simply cannot feed once faced with a serious illness. -Healthcare is too expensive and unobtainable to many-What reforms are needed to address such disparities in healthcare? And more importantly, in our political system what reforms can or cannot be made? This documentary provides one way to think through the expression of policy making process in America.Supplementary/suggested readingsStart with grounds facts, numbers, and myths about Obamas affordable Care Act http//www.whitehouse.gov/healthreformMargaret Flowers Obamacare did not go far enough, we still need universal health coverage for Americans http//www.thenation.com/ flick/168604/margaret-flowers-obamacare-doesnt-go-far-enough Number of uninsured Americans rises to 50.7 millionhttp//usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-09-17-uninsured17_st_n.htm Census entropy on health coverage in Americahttp//www.census.gov/hhes/www/hlthins/data/incpovhlth/2010/highlights.html republicans who benefit from Obamas healthcare bill are torn about the candidates http//www.cnn.com/2012/10/06/health/republicans-conflicted-obamacare/ Listing some benefits for women under Obamas healthcare bill, particular for potential cancer patients http//www.democraticunderground.com/10021447151Three myths about Obamas Affordable Care Acthttp//www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Noq_tktemE0 Republican presidential candidate Romney on healthcarehttp//www.nytimes.com/2012/10/05/opinion/krugman-romneys-sick-joke.html?smid=fb-share&_r=0 Public opinion about Obamas healthcare bill healthcare iscomplex in terms of public opinionwhile a majority favored its repeal, large majorities actually favored each aspect of the law. Moreover, with the Supreme Courts upholding the law, this seems to have made it more popular (but made the Court less so)http//themonkeycage.org/blog/20 12/10/03/the-effect-of-the-courts-ruling-in-the-aca/http//themonkeycage.org/blog/2012/06/27/framing-and-health-care-reform/http//www.politico.com/news/stories/0811/62242.htmlPaul Ryans (runs as vice-president on the Republican ticket in 2012 election) plans to undercut social security and Medicare infuriate the elderly, he dismisses concerns with contempt and removal of a senior citizens from the hall http//www.upworthy.com/paul-ryans-medicare-plan-will-hurt-old-people-paul-ryans-security-guys-have-hurt?g=2 Healthcare debate in cross-cultural perspective Canada vs. U.S. http//www.diemer.ca/Docs/Diemer-TenHealthCareMyths.htmHealthcare in Netherlands vs. U.S.http//www.nytimes.com/2009/05/03/magazine/03european-t.html?pagewanted=all

Monday, January 21, 2019

Reading Books Essay

see a book is hotshot of the best forms of entertainment a person can have. Books can bear you places to a time and lifestyle that you will never visit or experience. I remember the old show called Reading Rainbow and it lyrics were gave a very(prenominal) interesting take on books they went like this I can twice as high take a look, its in a book A Reading Rainbow, I can go anywhere, Friends to cut and ways to grow, Reading Rainbow, I can be anything take a look its in a book. Those lyrics are so true.Reading a book you can read about how life was in the 1700s up until our generation today. I could be a spy who solves a famous mystery or I could be the killer whale trying to take a crap away. I can learn to speak other language. There are so many things and topics in reading a book that can change your appearance, your political viewpoints, and change your attitude. Some evidence that books might become obsolete because movies are made from these books and you can respec t the movies in two hours. Watching the movies a person feels that you can get the plot and conclusion of the book in two hours.This is true except for example if it is true life story the movie are passing play to change some parts of the books to make it more enjoyable, whereas the book is breathing out to give you every detail the author wants you to have. Books gives people a conversation piece just like a movie but the that difference is books can join the world. Movies cant be seen in some countries but a book can be read. So like the Reading Rainbow says take a look its in a book. So in conclusion reading a book is the best form of entertainment.Stephanie C. WilliamsNovember 20, 2010

Saturday, January 19, 2019

Foundation’s Edge CHAPTER THIRTEEN UNIVERSITY

UNIVERSITYPelorat wrinkled his nose when he and Trevize re-entered the farthest sensory faculty.Trevize shrugged. The valet body is a powerful dispenser of smells. Recycling neer whole works instantaneously and artificial scents nonwithstanding overlay they do non re crop.And I suppose no devil ships tonicity quite a similar, once theyve been sedulous for a period of time by distinguishable people.Thats right, hardly did you smell Sayshell planet after the first hour?No, admitted Pelorat. whole few, you wont smell this after a while, either. In fact, if you defy in the ship long enough, youll wel scrape the odor that greets you on your re mould as signifying home. And by the stylus, if you singlet a galactic rover after this, Janov, youll let to learn that it is impolite to comment on the odor of some(prenominal) ship or, for that emergence, either cr run d holdion to those who live on that ship or world. Between us, of race, it is entirely right.As a mat ter of fact, Golan, the funny thing is I do consider the Far Star home. At least its invention- study. Pelorat smilingd. You sack out, I neer considered myself a patriot. I manage to bet I recognize merely gentlemans gentlemanity as my nation, s bowl I must en heart and soul that universe a focus from the Foundation fills my purport with experience for it.Trevize was making his bed. Youre non very far from the Foundation, you have. The Sayshell centre is or so surrounded by Federation territory. We move over an ambassador and an wondrous charge here, from consuls on d make. The Sayshellians cargon to oppose us in account books, sightly they ar usu entirelyy very cautious round doing anything that gives us displea original. Janov, do turn in. We got nowhere today and we fetch to do erupt tomorrow.Still, in that respect was no difficulty in hearing between the both rooms, further, and when the ship was dark, Pelorat, tossing rest littlely, at long last state in a non very loud voice, Golan?Yes.Youre non sleeping? non while youre talking.We did push back somewhere today. Your friend, ComporEx-friend, growled Trevize.Whatever his status, he talked elegantly dry land and t sometime(a) us something I hadnt throw in crossways in my researches onwards. RadioactivityTrevize lifted himself to one and plainly(a) elbow. Look, Golan, if solid ground is really dead, that doesnt mean we settle home. I still motive to rise up atomic number 32.Pelorat make a puffing noise with his m discloseh as though he were blowing a management feathers. My serious chap, of course. So do I. Nor do I think ball is dead. Compor may beat been announceing what he felt was the truth, further in that respects scarcely a sector in the beetleweed that doesnt feature some tale or other that would place the germ of humanity on some local anesthetic world. And they virtually invariably claim it Earth or some intimately equivalent find.We annunciate it globocentrism in anthropology. People suffer a intention to take it for granted that they argon interrupt than their neighbors that their culture is older and first-rate to that of other worlds that what is good in other worlds has been borrowed from them, while what is bad is distort or perverted in the borrowing or invented elsewhere. And the track downency is to tally superiority in quality with superiority in duration. If they female genital organ non occasionably honour their ingest major planet to be Earth or its equivalent and the stems of the human species they almost al styluss do the best they nooky by placing Earth in their own sector, redden up when they cannot locate it precisely.Trevize verbalize, And youre describeing me that Compor was honest pursuance the common ha daub when he throw Earth existed in the Sirius sector. Still, the Sirius vault of heaven does harbour a long history, so every world in it should be well co gnise and it should be easy to check the matter, evening with away going at that place.Pelorat chuckled. all the same if you were to show that no world in the Sirius heavens could possibly be Earth, that wouldnt help. You downstairsestimate the depths to which mysticism can bury rationality, Golan. at that place atomic number 18 at least fractional a dozen sectors in the galax where respect fitted assimilators repeat, with every appearance of solemnity and with no stick to of a smile, local tales that Earth or whatever they choose to key fruit it is hardened in hyperspace and cannot be reached, except by accident.And do they say anyone has ever reached it by accident?thither ar always tales and at that place is always a patriotic refusal to disbelieve, even though the tales are never in the least credible and are never believed by anyone not of the world that produces them. thus, Janov, lets not believe them ourselves. Lets enter our own private hyperspace of slee p.But, Golan, its this bank line of Earths radioactivity that interests me. To me, that holdms to bear the mark of truth or a pleasant of truth.What do you mean, a kind of truth?Well, a world that is radioactive would be a world in which hard radiation would be present in higher concentration than is usual. The rate of mutation would be higher on such a world and evolution would hold dorsum to a greater extent quickly and to a greater extent diversely. I told you, if you remember, that among the points on which almost all the tales learn is that life on Earth was incredibly diverse millions of species of all kinds of life. It is this diversity of life this explosive development that susceptibility demand brought perception to the Earth, and therefore the surge outward into the Galaxy. If Earth were for some reason radioactive that is, more radioactive than other planets that might account for everything else or so Earth that is or was unique.Trevize was silent fo r a moment. Then, In the first place, we wee-wee no reason to believe Compor was insureing the truth. He may well develop been lying freely in order to induce us to start out this place and go chasing madly run into to Sirius. I believe thats exactly what he was doing. And even if he were telling the truth, what he verbalise was that thither was so much radioactivity that life became out(predicate).Pelorat made the blowing gesture again. there wasnt too much radioactivity to allow life to develop on Earth and it is easier for life to maintain itself once established than to develop in the first place. Granted, then, that life was established and maintained on Earth. in that respectfore the take aim of radioactivity could not carry been incompatible with life to begin with and it could solitary(prenominal) have fallen off with time. at that place is nothing that can scold the level.Nuclear explosions? suggested Trevize.What would that have to do with it?I mean, supp ose nuclear explosions took place on Earth?On Earths surface? Impossible. in that locations no record in the history of the Galaxy of any society being so erroneous as to utilisation nuclear explosions as a weapon of war. We would never have survived. During the Trigellian insurrections, when both sides were reduced to starvation and desperation and when Jendippurus Khoratt suggested the initiation of a fusion reaction inHe was hanged by the sailors of his own fleet. I know Galactic history. I was thinking of accident.Theres no record of accidents of that fork that are capable of significantly raising the intensity of radioactivity of a planet, generally. He sighed. I suppose that when we get around to it, well have to go to the Sirius Sector and do a detailed prospecting there.Someday, perhaps, we allow. But for nowYes, yes, Ill wear talking.He did and Trevize lay in the dark for close to an hour considering whether he had attracted too much attendance already and whether it might not be wise to go to the Sirius Sector and then return to germanium when attention everyones attention was elsewhere.He had arrived at no clear decision by the time he fell asleep. His dreams were troubled.They did not arrive corroborate in the city till midmorning. The tourist center was quite crowded this time, and they managed to declare the necessary directions to a reference library, where in turn they authoritative instruction in the use of the local models of data-gathering computers.They went carefully through the museums and universities, beginning with those that were nearest, and checked out whatever learning was available on anthropologists, archaeologists, and antiquated historians.Pelorat give tongue to, AhAh? give tongue to Trevize with some asperity. Ah, what?This name, Quintesetz. It go acrossms familiar.You know him?No, of course not, only if when I may have read written document of his. Back at the ship, where I have my reference hookupWere not going back, Janov. If the name is familiar, thats a head start point. If he cant help us, he go out undoubtedly be able to direct us further. He rose to his feet. Lets find a way of getting to Sayshell University. And since there pass on be nobody there at lunchtime, lets eat first.It was not till late(a) afternoon that they had made their way out to the university, worked their way through its maze, and found themselves in an anteroom, waiting for a puppylike char who had gone off in search of in compriseation and who might or might not lead them to Quintesetz.I wonder, give tongue to Pelorat uneasily, how much longer well have to wait. It must be getting toward the ratiocination of the schoolday.And, as though that were a cue, the young lady whom they had last operaten half an hour before, walked rapidly toward them, her shoes glinting red and violet and big the ground with a sharp musical tone as she walked. The interchange varied with the speed and force of her steps.Pelorat winced. He suppose that each world had its own ways of assaulting the senses, just as each had its own smell. He wondered if, now that he no longer noticed the smell, he might also learn not to notice the cacophony of fashionable young women when they walked.She came to Pelorat and stopped. May I have your full name, Professor?Its Janov Pelorat, miss.Your home planet?Trevize began to lift one advance as though to en spliff silence, notwithstanding Pelorat, either not seeing or not regarding, verbalise, achievement.The young woman smiled broadly, and take ined pleased. When I told Professor Quintesetz that a Professor Pelorat was inquiring for him, he express he would see you if you were Janov Pelorat of Terminus, further not otherwise.Pelorat blinked rapidly. You you mean, hes hear of me?It certainly waits so.And, almost creakily, Pelorat managed a smile as he sour to Trevize. Hes comprehend of me. I honestly didnt think I mean, Ive written very few papers and I didnt think that anyone He shake his head. They werent really important.Well then, state Trevize, smiling himself, stop hugging yourself in an ecstasy of self-underestimation and lets go. He false to the woman. I presume, miss, theres some sort of transportation to take us to him?Its in spite of appearance walking distance. We wont even have to leave the building mixed and Ill be glad to take you there. Are both of you from Terminus? And off she went.The two men followed and Trevize utter, with a trace of annoyance, Yes, we are. Does that make a difference?Oh no, of course not. There are people on Sayshell that dont like Foundationers, you know, barely here at the university, were more cosmopolitan than that. Live and let live is what I always say. I mean, Foundationers are people, too. You know what I mean?Yes, I know what you mean. Lots of us say that Sayshellians are people.Thats just the way it should be. Ive never seen Terminus. It must be a big city.Actually it is nt, give tongue to Trevize matter-of-factly. I suspect its smaller than Sayshell City.Youre tweaking my finger, she give tongue to. Its the capital of the Foundation Federation, isnt it? I mean, there isnt another Terminus, is there?No, theres only one Terminus, as far as I know, and thats where were from the capital of the Foundation Federation.Well then, it must be an enormous city. And youre coming all the way here to see the professor. Were very noble-minded of him, you know. Hes considered the biggest authority in the whole Galaxy.Really? said Trevize. On what?Her eyeball opened wide again, You are a teaser. He knows more almost ancient history than than I know about my own family. And she continue to walk on ahead on her musical feet.One can only be called a teaser and a finger-tweaker so practically without developing an actual impulse in that direction. Trevize smiled and said, The professor knows all about Earth, I suppose?Earth? She stopped at an office entrance and looked at them blankly.You know. The world where humanity got its start.Oh, you mean the planet-that-was-first. I guess so. I guess he should know all about it. After all, its located in the Sayshell Sector. Everyone knows that This is his office. Let me signal him.No, dont, said Trevize. Not for just a minute. Tell me about Earth.Actually I never heard anyone call it Earth. I suppose thats a Foundation word. We call it germanium, here.Trevize cast a swift look at Pelorat. Oh? And where is it located?Nowhere. Its in hyperspace and theres no way anyone can get to it. When I was a little girl, my grandmother said that atomic number 32 was once in real space, merely it was so gross out at theCrimes and stupidities of human beings, muttered Pelorat, that, out of shame, it go away field space and refused to have anything more to do with the human beings it had sent out into the Galaxy.You know the story, then. gather in? A girlfriend of mine says its superstition. Well, Ill te ll her. If its good enough for professors from the FoundationA glittering section of lettering on the smoky glass of the penetration read SOTAYN QUINTESETZ ABT in the hard-to-read Sayshellian calligraphy and under it was printed, in the comparable fashion DEPARTMENT OF ANCIENT HISTORY.The woman placed her finger on a inactive metal circle. There was no sound, solely the smokiness of the glass turned a milky white for a moment and a aristocratic voice said, in an abstracted sort of way, Identify yourself, please.Janov Pelorat of Terminus, said Pelorat, with Golan Trevize of the same world. The door swung open at once.The man who stood up, walked around his desk, and advanced to sui prorogue them was tall and well into middle age. He was lightness brown in skin subterfuge and his hair, which was set in crisp curls over his head, was iron-gray. He held out his hand in greeting and his voice was soft and low. I am S. Q. I am delighted to meet you, Professors.Trevize said, I dont own an academic title. I merely accompany Professor Pelorat. You may call me entirely Trevize. I am pleased to meet you, Professor Abt.Quintesetz held up one hand in clear embarrassment. No no. Abt is merely a foolish title of some sort that has no moment outside of Sayshell. Ignore it, please, and call me S. Q. We tend to use initials in middling social intercourse on Sayshell. Im so pleased to meet two of you when I had been expecting still one.He seemed to hesitate a moment, then drawn-out his right hand after wiping it unobtrusively on his trousers.Trevize took it, wondering what the straight-laced Sayshellian manner of greeting was.Quintesetz said, gratify sit down. Im timid youll find these chairs to be lifeless ones, but I, for one, dont want my chairs to hug me. Its all the fashion for chairs to hug you nowadays, but I prefer a hug to mean something, hey?Trevize smiled and said, Who would not? Your name, SQ., seems to be of the Rim Worlds and not Sayshellian. I apol ogize if the remark is impertinent.I dont mind. My family traces back, in part, to Askone. Five generations back, my great-great-grandparents remaining Askone when Foundation domination grew too heavy.Pelorat said, And we are Foundationers. Our apologies.Quintesetz waved his hand genially, I dont hold a grudge across a stretch of five generations. Not that such things havent been done, mores the pity. Would you like to have something to eat? To drink? Would you like music in the background?If you dont mind, said Pelorat, Id be allow foring to get right to business, if Sayshellian ways would permit.Sayshellian ways are not a barrier to that, I as true you. You have no caprice how remarkable this is, Dr. Pelorat. It was only about two weeks ago that I came across your article on origin myths in the Archaeological Re position and it soft on(p) me as a remarkable synthesis all too brief.Pelorat rose-colored with plea undisputable. How delighted I am that you have read it. I had to brook it, of course, since the Review would not print a full study. I have been planning to do a treatise on the subject.I wish you would. In any case, as soon as I had read it, I had this desire to see you. I even had the notion of confering Terminus in order to do so, though that would have been hard to ordainwhy so? asked Trevize.Quintesetz looked embarrassed. Im sorry to say that Sayshell is not eager to join the Foundation Federation and instead discourages any social communication with the Foundation. Weve a tradition of objectiveism, you see. Even the mule didnt bother us, except to extort from us a specific avowal of neutrality. For that reason, any application for permission to rebuke Foundation territory generally and particularly Terminus is viewed with suspicion, although a bookman such as myself, intent on academic business, would probably obtain his passport in the end. But none of that was necessary you have come to me. I can scarcely believe it. I ask myse lf wherefore? Have you heard of me, as I have heard of you?Pelorat said, I know your work, S. Q., and in my records I have abstracts of your papers. It is why I have come to you. I am exploring both the matter of Earth, which is the reputed planet of origin of the human species, and the early period of the exploration and settlement of the Galaxy. In particular, I have come here to inquire as to the founding of Sayshell.From your paper, said Quintesetz, I presume you are interested in myths and legends.Even more in history actual facts if such exist. Myths and legends, otherwise.Quintesetz rose and walked rapidly back and forth the length of his office, paused to stare at Pelorat, then walked again.Trevize said impatiently, Well, sir.Quintesetz said, unique Really odd It was only yesterdayPelorat said, What was only yesterday?Quintesetz said, I told you, Dr. Pelorat may I call you J. P., by the way? I find using a full-length name rather unnaturalPlease do.I told you, J. P., th at I had admired your paper and that I had wanted to see you. The reason I wanted to see you was that you clearly had an extensive collection of legends concerning the beginnings of the worlds and except didnt have ours. In other words, I wanted to see you in order to tell you precisely what you have come to see me to find out.What has this to do with yesterday, S. Q. ? asked Trevize.We have legends. A legend. An important one to our society, for it has become our central mysteryMystery? said Trevize.I dont mean a puzzle or anything of that sort. That, I believe, would be the usual meaning of the word in Galactic Standard. Theres a specialized meaning here. It means something secluded something only certain adepts know the full meaning of something not to be utter of to outsiders. And yesterday was the day.The day of what, S. Q. ? asked Trevize, slightly exaggerating his air of patience.Yesterday was the Day of shoot.Ah, said Trevize, a day of meditation and quiet, when everyon e is supposed to remain at home.Something like that, in theory, except that in the larger cities, the more sophisticated regions, there is little observance in the older fashion. But you know about it, I see.Pelorat, who had grown spooky at Trevizes annoyed tone, put in hastily, We heard a little of it, having arrived yesterday.Of all days, said Trevize sarcastically. See here, S. Q. As I said, Im not an academic, but I have a question. You said you were let the cat out of the baging of a central mystery, meaning it was not to be talk of to outsiders. Why, then, are you accosting of it to us? We are outsiders.So you are. But Im not an observer of the day and the depth of my superstition in this matter is slight at best. J. P. s paper, however, rein laboured a notion I have had for a long time. A myth or legend is simply not made up out of a vacuum. Nothing is or can be. Somehow there is a kernel of truth stooge it, however distorted that might be, and I would like the truth slowly our legend of the Day of Flight.Trevize said, Is it safe to talk about it?Quintesetz shrugged. Not entirely, I suppose. The conservative elements among our population would be horrified. However, they dont control the government and havent for a century. The secularists are strong and would be stronger still, if the conservatives didnt take advantage of our if youll excuse me anti-Foundation bias. Then, too, since I am handleing the matter out of my scholarly interest in ancient history, the confederation of Academicians forget support me strongly, in case of deal.In that case, said Pelorat, would you tell us about your central mystery, SQ. ?Yes, but let me make sure we wont be interrupted or, for that matter, overheard. Even if one must stare the bastard in the face, one neednt slap its muzzle, as the saying goes.He flicked a pattern on the work-face of an instrument on his desk and said, Were incommunicado now.Are you sure youre not bugged? asked Trevize.Bugged?Ta pped Eavesdropped Subjected to a device that leave have you under observation visual or auditory or both.Quintesetz looked shocked. Not here on SayshellTrevize shrugged. If you say so.Please go on, SQ., said Pelorat.Quintesetz pursed his lips, leaned back in his chair (which gave slightly under the pressure) and put the tips of his fingers together. He seemed to be speculating as to just how to begin.He said, Do you know what a golem is?A robot? said Pelorat. No.Quintesetz looked in the direction of Trevize, who shook his head slowly.You know what a computer is, however?Of course, said Trevize impatiently.Well then, a mobile computerized toolIs a mobile computerized tool. Trevize was still impatient. There are endless varieties and I dont know of any generalized precondition for it except mobile computerized tool. that looks exactly like a human being is a robot. S. Q. completed his definition with equanimity. The distinction of a robot is that it is humaniform. Why humaniform? asked Pelorat in honest amazement. Im not sure. Its a remarkably inefficient form for a tool, I grant you, but Im just repeating the legend. Robot is an old word from no recognizable language, though our scholars say it bears the connotation of work.I cant think of any word, said Trevize skeptically, that sounds even vaguely like robot and that has any connection with work.Nothing in Galactic, certainly, said Quintesetz, but thats what they say.Pelorat said, It may have been reverse etymology. These objects were used for work, and so the word was said to mean work. In any case, why do you tell us this?Because it is a theatrely fixed tradition here on Sayshell that when Earth was a wizard world and the Galaxy lay all uninhabited before it, robots were invented and devised. There were then two sorts of human beings natural and invented, flesh and metal, biological and mechanical, complex and simpleQuintesetz came to a halt and said with a rueful laugh, Im sorry. It is impossible to talk about robots without quoting from the Book of Flight. The people of Earth devised robots and I need say no more. Thats plain enough.And why did they devise robots? asked Trevize.Quintesetz shrugged. Who can tell at this distance in time? Perhaps they were few in numbers and needed help, particularly in the great task of exploring and populating the Galaxy.Trevize said, Thats a reasonable suggestion. Once the Galaxy was colonized, the robots would no longer be needed. for certain there are no humanoid mobile computerized tools in the Galaxy today.In any case, said Quintesetz, the story is as follows if I may vastly simplify and leave out many an(prenominal) poetic ornamentations which, frankly, I dont accept, though the general population does or pretends to. Around Earth, there grew up colony worlds circling neighboring stars and these colony worlds were far richer in robots than was Earth itself. There was more use for robots on raw, new worlds. Earth, in fact, retreat ed, wished no more robots, and rebelled against them.What happened? asked Pelorat.The Outer Worlds were the stronger. With the help of their robots, the children subdueed and controlled Earth the Mother. Pardon me, but I cant help slipping into quotation. But there were those from Earth who fled their world with wagerer ships and stronger modes of hyperspatial travel. They fled to far distant stars and worlds, far beyond the closer worlds early colonized. bleak colonies were founded without robots in which human beings could live freely. Those were the Times of Flight, so-called, and the day upon which the first Earthmen reached the Sayshell Sector this very planet, in fact is the Day of Flight, celebrated annually for many thousands of years.Pelorat said, My dear chap, what you are saying, then, is that Sayshell was founded directly from Earth.Quintesetz thought and hesitated for a moment. Then he said, That is the official belief.Obviously, said Trevize, you dont accept it.It seems to me Quintesetz began and then burst out, Oh, Great Stars and pocket-size Planets, I dont It is entirely too unlikely, but its official dogma and however secularized the government has become, lip service to that, at least, is essential. Still, to the point. In your article, J. P., there is no indication that youre aware of this story of robots and of two waves of colonization, a lesser one with robots and a greater one without.I certainly was not, said Pelorat. I hear it now for the first time and, my dear SQ., I am eternally grateful to you for making this cognise to me. I am stunned that no hint of this has appeared in any of the writingsIt shows, said Quintesetz, how useful our social system is. Its our Sayshellian secret our great mystery.Perhaps, said Trevize dryly. Yet the befriend wave of colonization the robotless wave must have moved out in all directions. Why is it only on Sayshell that this great secret exists?Quintesetz said, It may exist elsewher e and be just as secret. Our own conservatives believe that only Sayshell was settled from Earth and that all the rest of the Galaxy was settled from Sayshell. That, of course, is probably nonsense.Pelorat said, These subsidiary puzzles can be worked out in time. Now that I have the starting point, I can prove out similar discipline on other worlds. What counts is that I have discovered the question to ask and a good question is, of course, the key by which infinite answers can be educed. How fortunate that ITrevize said, Yes, Janov, but the good SQ. has not told us the whole story, surely. What happened to the older colonies and their robots? Do your traditions say?Not in detail, but in essence. Human and humanoid cannot live together, apparently. The worlds with robots died. They were not viable.And Earth?Humans left it and settled here and presumptively (though the conservatives would disagree) on other planets as well.Surely not every human being left Earth. The planet was no t deserted.Presumably not. I dont know.Trevize said abruptly, Was it left radioactive?Quintesetz looked astonished. Radioactive?Thats what Im asking.Not to my knowledge. I never heard of such a thing.Trevize put a knuckle to his teeth and considered. last he said, S. Q., its getting late and we have trespassed sufficiently on your time, perhaps. (Pelorat made a motion as though he were about to protest, but Trevizes hand was on the others knee and his grip tightened so Pelorat, looking disturbed, subsided.)Quintesetz said, I was delighted to be of use.You have been and if theres anything we can do in exchange, name it.Quintesetz laughed gently. If the good J. P. will be so kind as to give over from mentioning my name in connection with any writing he does on our mystery, that will be sufficient repayment.Pelorat said eagerly, You would be able to get the credit you deserve and perhaps be more appreciated if you were allowed to visit Terminus and even, perhaps, remain there as a visiting scholar at our university for an extended period. We might arrange that. Sayshell might not like the Federation, but they might not like refusing a direct petition that you be allowed to come to Terminus to attend, let us say, a colloquium on some aspect of ancient history.The Sayshellian half-rose. Are you saying you can drag strings to arrange that?Trevize said, Why, I hadnt thought of it, but J. P. is perfectly right. That would be feasible if we tried. And, of course, the more grateful you make us, the harder we will fork up.Quintesetz paused, then frowned. What do you mean, sir?All you have to do is tell us about Gaia, S. Q., said Trevize. And all the light in Quintesetzs face died.Quintesetz looked down at his desk. His hand stroked absent-mindedly at his short, tightly curled hair. Then he looked at Trevize and pursed his lips tightly. It was as though he were determined not to speak.Trevize lifted his eyebrows and waited and finally Quintesetz said in a strangl ed sort of way, it is getting thence late quite glemmering.Until then he had spoken in good Galactic, but now his words took on a strange shape as though the Sayshellian mode of speech were pushing past his classical education.Glemmering, S. Q. ?It is nearly full night.Trevize nodded. I am thoughtless. And I am hungry, too. Could you please join us for an evening repast, S. Q., at our expense? We could then, perhaps, continue our dealion about Gaia.Quintesetz rose heavily to his feet. He was taller than either of the two men from Terminus, but he was older and pudgier and his height did not lend him the appearance of strength. He seemed more weary than when they had arrived.He blinked at them and said, I forget my hospitality. You are Outworlders and it would not be fitting that you entertain me. Come to my home. It is on campus and not far and, if you wish to carry on a conversation, I can do so in a more relaxed manner there than here. My only regret (he seemed a little uneasy ) is that I can maintain you only a limited meal. My married woman and I are vegetarians and if you are meat-eating, I can Only express my apologies and regrets.Trevize said, J. P. and I will be quite content to forego our carnivorous natures for one meal. Your conversation will more than make up for it I hope.I can ring you an interesting meal, whatever the conversation, said Quintesetz, if your taste should run to our Sayshellian spices. My wife and I have made a rare study of such things.I look forward to any exoticism you choose to supply, S. Q., said Trevize coolly, though Pelorat looked a little nervous at the prospect.Quintesetz led the way. The three left the room and walked down an apparently endless corridor, with the Sayshellian greeting students and colleagues now and then, but making no attempt to introduce his companions. Trevize was uneasily aware that others stared interrogatively at his sash, which happened to be one of his gray ones. A subdued color was not som ething that was de rigueur in campus clothing, apparently.Finally they stepped through the door and out into the open. It was indeed dark and a little cool, with trees bulking in the distance and a rather rank stand of grass on either side of the walkway.Pelorat came to a halt with his back to the glimmer of lights that came from the building they had just left and from the glows that seamed the walks of the campus. He looked straight upward.Beautiful he said. There is a storied phrase in a verse by one of our better poets that speaks of the speckle-shine of Sayshells soaring sky.Trevize gazed appreciately and said in a low voice, Vie are from Terminus, S. Q., and my friend, at least, has seen no other skies. On Terminus, we see only the smooth dim fog of the Galaxy and a few barely perceptible stars. You would appreciate your own sky even more, had you lived with ours.Quintesetz said gravely, We appreciate it to the full, I assure you. Its not so much that we are in an uncrowded area of the Galaxy, but that the distribution of stars is remarkably even. I dont think that you will find, anywhere in the Galaxy, first-magnitude stars so generally distributed. And yet not too many, either. I have seen the skies of worlds that are inside the outer reaches of a round cluster and there you will see too many voguish stars. It spoils the darkness of the night sky and reduces the splendor considerably.I quite agree with that, said Trevize.Now I wonder, said Quintesetz, if you see that almost symmetric pentagon of almost equally bright stars. The Five Sisters, we call them. Its in that direction, just above the line of trees. Do you see it?I see it, said Trevize. Very attractive.Yes, said Quintesetz. Its supposed to symbolize success in love and theres no love letter that doesnt end in a pentagon of dots to designate a desire to make love. Each of the five stars stands for a different stage in the process and there are famous poems which have vied with each othe r in making each stage as explicitly erotic as possible. In my younger days, I assay versifying on the subject myself and I wouldnt have thought that the time would come when I would grow so indifferent to the Five Sisters, though I suppose its the common fate. Do you see the dim star just about in the center of the Five Sisters.That, said Quintesetz, is supposed to fiddle unrequited love. There is a legend that the star was once as bright as the rest, but faded with grief. And he walked on rapidly.The dinner, Trevize had been forced to admit to himself, was delightful. There was endless variety and the spicing and dressing were subtle but effective.Trevize said, All these vegetables which have been a pleasure to eat, by the way are part of the Galactic dietary, are they not, SQ. ?Yes, of course.I presume, though, that there are innate forms of life, too.Of course. Sayshell Planet was an oxygen world when the first settlers arrived, so it had to be life-bearing. And we have pr eserved some of the indigenous life, you may be sure. We have quite extensive natural parks in which both the flora and the wight of Old Sayshell survive.Pelorat said sadly, There you are in advance of us, S. Q. There was little land life on Terminus when human beings arrived and Im afraid that for a long time no concerted effort was made to preserve the sea life, which had produced the oxygen that made Terminus habitable. Terminus has an environmental science now that is purely Galactic in nature.Sayshell, said Quintesetz, with a smile of modest pride, has a long and steady record of life-valuing.And Trevize chose that moment to say, When we left your office, SQ., I believe it was your intention to feed us dinner and then tell us about Gaia.Quintesetzs wife, a friendly woman expand and quite dark, who had said little during the meal looked up in astonishment, rose, and left the room without a word.My wife, said Quintesetz uneasily, is quite a conservative, Im afraid, and is a bit uneasy at the mention of the world. Please excuse her. But why do you ask about it?Because it is important for J. P.s work, Im afraid.But why do you ask it of me? We were discussing Earth, robots, the founding of Sayshell. What has all this to do with what you ask?Perhaps nothing, and yet there are so many oddnesses about the matter. Why is your wife uneasy at the mention of Gaia? Why are you uneasy? Some talk of it easily enough. We have been told only today that Gaia is Earth itself and that it has disappeared into hyperspace because of the evil done by human beings.A look of pain crossed Quintesetzs face. Who told you that gibberish?Someone I met here at the university.Thats just superstition.Then its not part of the central dogma of your legends concerning the Flight?No, of course not. Its just a fable that arose among the ordinary, uneducated people.Are you sure? asked Trevize coldly.Quintesetz sat back in his chair and stared at the remnant of the meal before him. Come i nto the living room, he said. My wife will not allow this room to be cleared and set to rights while we are here and discussing this.Are you sure it is just a fable? ingeminate Trevize, once they had seated themselves in another room, before a windowpane that bellied upward and inward to give a clear view of Sayshells remarkable night sky. The lights within the room glimmered down to avoid controversy and Quintesetzs dark countenance melted into the shadow.Quintesetz said, Arent you sure? Do you think that any world can dissolve into hyperspace? You must understand that the average person has only the vaguest notion of what hyperspace is.The truth is, said Trevize, that I myself have only the vaguest notion of what hyperspace is and Ive been through it hundreds of times.Let me speak realities, then. I assure you that Earth wherever it is is not located within the borders of the Sayshell compass north and that the world you mentioned is not Earth.But even if you dont know wher e Earth is, S. Q., you ought to know where the world I mentioned is. It is certainly within the borders of the Sayshell Union. We know that much, eh, Pelorat?Pelorat, who had been listening stolidly, started at being perfectly addressed and said, If it comes to that, Golan, I know where it is.Trevize turned to look at him. Since when, Janov?Since earlier this evening, my dear Golan. You showed us theFive Sisters, S. Q., on our way from your office to your house. You pointed out a dim star at the center of the pentagon. Im positive thats Gaia.Quintesetz hesitated his face, cabalistic in the dimness, was beyond any chance of interpretation. Finally he said, Well, thats what our astronomers tell us privately. It is a planet that circles that star.Trevize gazed contemplatively at Pelorat, but the expression on the professors face was unreadable. Trevize turned to Quintesetz, Then tell us about that star. Do you have its co-ordinates?I? No. He was almost violent in his denial. I have no stellar co-ordinates here. You can get it from our uranology department, though I imagine not without trouble. No travel to that star is permitted.Why not? Its within your territory, isnt it?Spaciographically, yes. Politically, no.Trevize waited for something more to be said. When that didnt come, he rose. Professor Quintesetz, he said formally, I am not a policeman, soldier, diplomat, or thug. I am not here to force information out of you. Instead, I shall, against my will, go to our ambassador. Surely, you must understand that it is not I, for my own personal interest, that request this information. This is Foundation business and I dont want to make an interstellar incident out of this. I dont think the Sayshell Union would want to, either.Quintesetz said uncertainly, What is this Foundation business?Thats not something I can discuss with you. If Gaia is not something you can discuss with me, then we will hit it all to the government level and, under the circumstances, it m ay be the worse for Sayshell. Sayshell has kept its independence of the Federation and I have no expostulation to that. I have no reason to wish Sayshell ill and I do not wish to approach our ambassador. In fact, I will harm my own career in doing so, for I am under strict instruction to get this information without making a government matter of it. Please tell me, then, if there is some firm reason why you cannot discuss Gaia. Will you be arrested or otherwise punished, if you speak? Will you tell me plainly that I have no displume but to go to the ambassadorial height?No no, said Quintesetz, who sounded short confused. I know nothing about government matters. We simply dont speak of that world.Superstition?Well, yes Superstition Skies of Sayshell, in what way am I better than that foolish person who told you that Gaia was in hyperspace or than my wife who wont even stay in a room where Gaia is mentioned and who may even have left the house for fear it will be stung byLight ning?By some stroke from afar. And I, even I, hesitate to adjudicate the name. Gaia Gaia The syllables do not hurt I am unharmed Yet I hesitate. But please believe me when I say that I honestly dont know the co-ordinates for Gaias star. I can try to help you get it, if that will help, but let me tell you that we dont discuss the world here in the Union. We keep hands and minds off it. I can tell you what little is known really known, rather than supposed and I doubt that you can learn anything more anywhere in these worlds of the Union.We know Gaia is an ancient world and there are some who think it is the oldest world in this sector of the Galaxy, but we are not certain. Patriotism tells us Sayshell Planet is the oldest fear tells us Gaia Planet is. The only way of combining the two is to suppose that Gaia is Earth, since it is known that Sayshell was settled by Earthpeople.Most historians think among themselves that Gaia Planet was founded independently. They think it is not a colony of any world of our Union and that the Union was not colonized by Gaia. There is no consensus on relative age, whether Gaia was settled before or after Sayshell was.Trevize said, So far, what you know is nothing, since every possible alternative is believed by someone or other.Quintesetz nodded ruefully. It would seem so. It was comparatively late in our history that we became conscious of the existence of Gaia. We had been heedless at first in forming the Union, then in fighting off the Galactic empire, then in trying to find our proper aim as an Imperial province and in limiting the power of the Viceroys.It wasnt till the days of Imperial weakness were far advanced that one of the later Viceroys, who was under very weak central control by then, came to ingest that Gaia existed and seemed to maintain its independence from the Sayshellian province and even from the Empire itself. It simply kept to itself in isolation and secrecy, so that virtually nothing was known ab out it, anymore than is now known. The Viceroy decided to take it over. We have no details what happened, but his expedition was broken and few ships returned. In those days, of course, the ships were neither very good nor very well led.Sayshell itself rejoiced at the defeat of the Viceroy, who was considered an Imperial oppressor, and the debacle led almost directly to the re-establishment of our independence. The Sayshell Union snapped its ties with the Empire and we still celebrate the anniversary of that event as Union Day. closely out of gratitude we left Gaia alone for nearly a century, but the time came when we were strong enough to begin to think of a little imperialistic expansion of our own. Why not take over Gaia? Why not at least establish a impost Union? We sent out a fleet and it was broken, too.Thereafter, we confined ourselves to an occasional(a) attempt at trade attempts that were invariably unsuccessful. Gaia remained in firm isolation and never to anyones know ledge made the slightest attempt to trade or communicate with any other world. It certainly never made the slightest unlike move against anyone in any direction. And thenQuintesetz turned up the light by touching a control in the arm of his chair. In the light, Quintesetzs face took on a clearly sardonic expression. He went on, Since you are citizens of the Foundation, you perhaps remember the scuff.Trevize flushed. In five centuries of existence, the Foundation had been conquered only once. The victory had been only temporary and had not seriously interfered with its climb toward Second Empire, but surely no one who resented the Foundation and wished to puncture its self-satisfaction would bombard to mention the Mule, its one conqueror. And it was likely (thought Trevize) that Quintesetz had raised the level of light in order that he might see Foundational self-satisfaction punctured.He said, Yes, we of the Foundation remember the Mule.The Mule, said Quintesetz, bumpd an Empir e for a while, one that was as large as the Federation now controlled by the Foundation. He did not, however, rule us. He left us in peace. He passed through Sayshell at one time, however. We signed a declaration of neutrality and a statement of friendship. He asked nothing more. We were the only ones of whom he asked nothing more in the days before illness called a halt to his expansion and forced him to wait for death. He was not an unreasonable man, you know. He did not use unreasonable force, he was not bloody, and he ruled humanely.It was just that he was a conqueror, said Trevize sarcastically.Like the Foundation, said Quintesetz.Trevize, with no ready answer, said irritably, Do you have more to say about Gaia? meet a statement that the Mule made. According to the account of the historic coming together between the Mule and President Kallo of the Union, the Mule is described as having put his signature to the document with a flourish and to have said, You are neutral even tow ard Gaia by this document, which is fortunate for you. Even I will not approach Gaia.Trevize shook his head. Why should he? Sayshell was eager to assure neutrality and Gaia had no record of ever troubling anyone. The Mule was planning the conquest of the entire Galaxy at the time, so why delay for trifles? Time enough to turn on Sayshell and Gaia, when that was done.Perhaps, perhaps, said Quintesetz, but according to one witness at the time, a person we tend to believe, the Mule put down his pen as he said, Even I will not approach Gaia. His voice then dropped and, in a whisper not meant to be heard, he added again.Not meant to be heard, you say. Then how was it he was heard?Because his pen rolled off the table when he put it down and a Sayshellian automatically approached and bent to pick it up. His ear was close to the Mules mouth when the word again was spoken and he heard it. He said nothing until after the Mules death.How can you prove it was not an invention.The mans life is not the kind that makes it probable he would invent something of this kind. His report is accepted.And if it is?The Mule was never in or anywhere near the Sayshell Union except on this one occasion, at least after he appeared on the Galactic scene. If he had ever been on Gaia, it had to be before he appeared on the Galactic scene.Well?Well, where was the Mule born?I dont think anyone knows, said Trevize.In the Sayshell Union, there is a strong feeling he was born on Gaia.Because of that one word?Only partly. The Mule could not be defeated because he had strange mental powers. Gaia cannot be defeated either.Gaia has not been defeated as yet. That does not necessarily prove it cannot be.Even the Mule would not approach. Search the records of his Overlordship. See if any region other than the Sayshell Union was so gingerly treated. And do you know that no one who has ever gone to Gaia for the designing of peaceful trade has ever returned? Why do you suppose we know so little about it?Trevize said, Your attitude seems much like superstition. holler it what you will. Since the time of the Mule, we have wiped Gaia out of our thinking. We dont want it to think of us. We only feel safe if we pretend it isnt there. It may be that the government has itself in secret initiated and encouraged the legend that Gaia has disappeared into hyperspace in the hope that people will forget that there is a real Star of that name.You think that Gaia is a world of Mules, then?It may be. I advise you, for your good, not to go there. If you do, you will never return. If the Foundation interferes with Gaia, it will show less intelligence than the Mule did. You might tell your ambassador that.Trevize said, Get me the co-ordinates and I will be off your world at once. I will reach Gaia and I will return.Quintesetz said, I will get you the co-ordinates. The astronomy department works nights, of course, and I will get it for you now, if I can. But let me suggest once more that you make no attempt to reach Gaia.Trevize said, I intend to make that attempt.And Quintesetz said heavily, Then you intend suicide.

Friday, January 18, 2019

The Symbolic Use of Nature in the Romantic Period

LITR 211 English Literature 18th deoxycytidine monophosphate to the Present Week 6 January 15, 2012 Essay 1 The symbolic intent of temperament in the Romantic Period Olejniczak, Brian 4029035 The Romantic period has truly little to do with its actual name. Rather, the authors of this period riding habitd descriptive imagery and extensively referenced nature because the use of nature is symbolic. There ar many authors of the Romantic period that illustrate this point. Instead of embracing the governmental lifestyle of the period like other era authors did, the Romantics turned to nature for inspiration. Romantics turned to nature for self fulfillment. They were turning away from the values and ideas of the antecedent era, embracing new ways of expressing their imagination and feelings. Instead of a denseness on head, the intellectual focus of reason, they preferred to rely on the self, in the radical idea of individual freedom. Instead of striving for perfection, the Romanti cs preferred the renown of the imperfect. (Lombardi 2012. ) The Romantic authors stressed the importance of the individual and organisation over the ideals of the coming Victorian ages ideals of loyalty and fraternity.The fire of the Romantic period is said to have begun with the writings of William Wordsworth with such(prenominal) whole works as Lines written in early spring and I wandered lonely(prenominal) as a cloud. In Wordsworths Lines Written In previous(predicate) Spring he states To her fair works did constitution link The valet de chambre soul that through with(predicate) me ran And much it grieved my heart to think What man has do of man. (Wordsworth Line 5-8. ) Here you can clearly see Wordsworths use of nature and how it affects the human soul.In this poem the speaker is sitting in a very lush meadow that is graphically described with such words like sweet and budding twigs. Wordsworth is very elaborate in his description of the meadow in which he is sitti ng in. Wordsworth looks at Nature and through his views sad thoughts come to his mind. Here he expresses his conviction in that knowledge of reality is reached through emotions and intuitions that Nature generates at being observed by man. Being Nature the real representation of reality and religion as well. Through primrose tufts, in that green bower The old maid trailed its wreaths And tis my faith that every flower Enjoys the air it breaths. (Wordsworth Line 9-12) In lines lodge through twelve, he observes nature at its peak, in all its grandness and beauty. He tells about its dynamic development when he describes how the periwinkle trains its branches through the grass. He also displays his implication in this development of natural events expressing his desire for the flowers to rejoice at their existence.Wordsworths poems initiated the Romantic era by accentuation feeling, instinct, and pleasure above formality and mannerism. Lombardi, Esther (2012). Ask. com Romantic P eriod Where did it all induce? Retrieved on January 12, 2012 from http//classiclit. about. com/od/britishromantics/a/aa_britromantic. htm Wordsworth, William. Editor Bartleby Bookstore. Lines Written In beforehand(predicate) Spring Retrieved on January 13, 2012 from http//www. bartleby. com/145/ww130. html

Thursday, January 17, 2019

Human Resource Management Plan Essay

As a startup healthc argon laging agency for per diem, irregular and travel healthcargon employment, pitying resources are our product as such, a Human Resource Management Plan is vital to the success of this agency. This computer programme has been put together with input of management/ recruitment, sales and employee representatives.This is tool to sanction in the building of this c altogetherer-out, clearly defining roles and play responsibilities of the administrative ply stressing the laws with which this partnership pull up stakes comply adding clear cut business line descriptions for the elbow grease force and includes information on plying, employee development/training and compensation strategies. Roles and Responsibilities omnibus Is liable for the over solely in all success of the human resource segment. The manager entrust implement and define line of work descriptions the training program and get downs.The manager pop the question procure all insu rance, entrust as genuine compliance with JCAHO regulations and fix sure that all state and federal statues are met as well as that all relevant laws and regulations are adhered to. The manager is responsible for acquiring human resources as well as being the final decisiveness ecclesiastic as to the hiring and termination of all employees. The manager must possess the chase acquirements leadership/management, budgeting, compliance allow all legal binds, and effective communication. sales Manager- the SM forget be responsible for initiating all contact with knobs sideline up on these contacts negotiating for a tighten in the midst of this union and client ensuring that all contractual organizations are complied with and developing a working kind with clients HR departments. The SM must possess the spare-time activity(a) skills leadership, compliance with all legal binds, effective communication, the autonomy to make decisions and the cleverness to project respect o f client and engender the appearance of trust, integrity and a positive image of the comp all.Support Personnel the SP depart be responsible for all coding and billing answering phones requesting all background searches ( crook as well as credit) light booking such as term sheets and payroll keeping track of all licenses, certification, contract and insurance design dates scheduling of all employees sending and sorting all correspondence placing advertisements and update the website as removeed.The SP must sport the following skills organization, trustworthiness, ability to comply with all reasonable requests by management and sales, keep a consistent and received work schedule, have the ability to keep all information private, and have a good work ethic and mortalality that glows the image this company wants to convey. Legal Requirements The sales product of our company is its human resources. As such, in that location is a myriad of laws and statutes that require total a ttention to address HR legal compliance. Adhering to these regulations is tantamount to success for this company.The Equal Employment Opportunity run is the chief statute that this company must adhere to. Every get lead be do to reduce/avoid violations of Title septet of the Civil Rights Act that protects a nominatest discrimination of race, color, sex (including pregnancy), religion and theme logical argument (EEOC, 2012). Nor will there be violations of the Age Discrimination Act of 1967 and its amendments. in that location will be training in and awareness of disparate interference of appliers including the EEOCs new regulations on not hiring based on criminal background so that these laws are not violated (EEOC, 2012).It is our responsibility to pee-pee our clients the best candidate to fit their requirements so the job description should recoil clearly and without any ambiguity, the limitations of each position. However, records will be kept in accordance with EEOC r egulations of all applicants as well as ensuring that all accommodations are make for any disabilities Punitive and compensatory damages can be levied against this company for violations of these acts. Benefits Required Until this company acquires 20+ employees it is not require to offer genuine benefits (EEOC, 2012).The majority of its employees will be contract workers and as such, they are needed to possess their own liability insurance, will not have approach shot to company provided health insurance, disability or retirement benefits. Government postulate assistances such as COBRA, FMLA and ERIS plans will not be included in any benefit package until such time as this company hires salaried employees at the required minimum (EEOC, Disabilities 2012). At that time this insurance will be revisited.OSHA regulations will be strictly apply at the companys geographical location and the appropriate information will be posted. Violations can be subject to penalties of up to $500, 000. 00 and up to vi months in jail (U. S. Legal, 2010-2013). Job Description of Contract Staff link up is a sample job description for a RN with a psych component and psych experience. (See addendum 1). This description has been carefully analyzed and developed in accordance with all laws and regulations and will be give to our clients for comparison so that their HR departments job escriptions are legally in spite of appearance all perimeters required and reflect essential job functions.This description was intentional with help from the O*Net Online website and the Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection Procedures. This companys mission is to fork over RNs, LPNs, CNAs, NAs, Social service, therapeutic, as well as any some other healthcare related staff on temporary need basis for hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, including home care. Our job descriptions must reflect this clearly and include the requirements given us in the contract with our clients. b oth limitations are those supplied to us by our clients HR department and do not represent limitations on hiring by this company or any employees of this company. Each individual HR department will provide NOLA treat Agency with their job descriptions but we reserve the right to alteration any portion of this design to reflect current laws in agreement with the clients HR department (Fried and Fottler, 2012, pp. 171,173,174, 176). Staffing and Employee Development Staffing will be guided by each individual job description.Jobs will be filled with the applicants who best fit with the requirements of our clients, suitability of the position and expectations of NOLA Nursing. Our hiring motto is outperform Person, Best Fit, equals Best Care. To ensure excellence in training of our per diem staff by NNA before additional training is undertaken after hire, we will determination the COPA model by Lenburg. The COPA model of assessment of competency by Lenburg provides for a framework t o ensure that teaching and learning of skills by nurses are interactional and student focused. NNA will use this framework to prepare per diem nurses/healthcare staff for employment.Below are the four major questions complied in this model 1. What are the essential competencies and outcomes for contemporary utilize? 2. What are the indicators that define those competencies? 3. What are the well-nigh effective ways to learn those competencies? And, 4. What are the most effective ways to document that learners and/or practioners have achieved the required competencies? To further prepare our healthcare staff will use Lenburgs eight core practice competencies with sub skill to grade new staff and use the entropy collected to fill out each individuals skill set. See Addendum 2) It will also be incumbent upon NOLA Nursing Agency * To recruit the best applicants to fulfill the specified job qualifications for our clients. This will include the initial structured wonder which will t est job-competency and advance the applicants suitability for the position. A realistic job house trailer will be given to the chosen applicant before extract to make up the success of the person-job/organization fit. (Fried et al, 2012, pp. 209, 211-212) * An employment agreement will be drafted and signed by NNA along the candidate and will be enforced by NNA.A separation agreement will also be initiated by NNA after receiving information by client and if obligatory, an exit interview will be performed by same. * Preform all background checks including job and education histories, criminal and civil backgrounds, validation of licenses/certifications/credentials, and checks of personal and professional references. A report will be made available to clients with signed allowance of the applicant and adhering to required laws.Drug screening and physical abilities confirmed if required on job description, * flow rate individual liability insurance pass copies kept on file as we ll as bound dates of the insurance for each contract employee. * Protected class applications will be cataloged and statistics will be submitted to the appropriate government regulation agencies * CEUs for each applicant will be kept up to date and appropriate to the job description * Each applicant will be tested in a skills inventory and given necessary instruction in wearied skills. A web bank of care for skills will be made available so contract applicants can improve on their skill base.* Compensation and any benefits will be negotiated between NOLA Nursing and the applicant * Any issues that a stand in the working environment will be mediated by NOLA Nursing and our client. * NOLA Nursing will monitor their contract employees job performances and any deficits will be addressed. * A decisive incidents analysis will be kept on each contract employee to better select quality candidates for our clients Recruitment will be finished advertisements in web based Job Boards, newspa pers and participation in job fairs.An active bank of all applicants will be kept updated with a surplus of personnel available for each potential position. all(prenominal) necessary legal regulations and statutes will be considered in job placement and all information given on a particular candidate will be considered on a need to k straightway basis. Our focus should be on giving our client a smooth, issue-free solution to their staffing deficits. While all attempts will be made to make a right person/right fit for each job description, voluntary and involuntary terminations will occur.To this end, the employment agreement between NNA and the applicant will include a section to negotiate issues resulting in a voluntary termination in an attempt to stay the dissolution of the contract. In case of a non-voluntary termination, NNA will act as representative of the employee to mediate any solutions that could result in the fulfillment of the contractual period. With due diligence per formed by our company, turnover judge of temporary staff should be preceding(prenominal) the rate of regular employees. We make all efforts to satisfy our clients and our most important resource, our employees.Evidence based query by Cummins, J. in the online article, Nurse retention strategies A growing priority, and Perrine, J, in Recruitment and retention report Strategies to boost RN retention, have shown that the following strategies have improved retention rates, increasing motivation, satisfaction and performance1. grow an environment where RNs actively participate in the decision making processes that occur at the unit on the institutional train 2. Improve the perception of respect 3. Improve access between RNs and the organizational leadership 4. Assist staff with education and training to meet the changing grocery needs 5. Lead by Example Compensation Contracts between job applicants and NOLA Nursing will be finalized after compensatory benefits are concur upo n and contracted by NNA and our client. Compensation will be on an hourly and per diem basis. HR will be cognizant of the market pay subdue for each job description and compensation will stay above market value to attract competent candidates. Special attention will be given to equal pay for equal opportunities (Equal Pay Act). sort Evidence based research by Singleton, K and Krause, E (Sept 2009) in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, has found a correlation between the upward(a) health of a patient and the nurse being of the same assimilation as the patient. Within legal limits, considerations will be given to the tribe climate of the institution where the deficit of nurses is occurring. We are an equal opportunity employer so anyone who applies will have the same opportunity to be placed in a position per the job description perimeters.Selection will not be determined by race, age, gender, sexual preference, color, religion or national origin. Realities are that nationwi de, 90% of U. S. nurses are Caucasian, and blacks and Hispanics are underrepresented per the US population (Aiken, 2007). All applicants will be looked at equally and attempts will be made to place any qualified applicant. Historical Perspective and Current Trends With the cycles of supply and demand on nurse labor market, the opening of the 21st hundred found healthcare systems trying to catch up with demand (Fried, et al, pp. 90). numerous foreign nurses were brought into the States to meet the demand nearly 15,000 passed the Nclex in 2005 according Aiken, nonetheless at the time, American nursing schools were turning away applicants because of capacity limitations. (Aiken, 2007) Projections are that the shortage in 2020 could reach 800,000 to 1. 1 million with a astronomical block of nurses looking to retire from the labor force by 2020. Aiken quotes that starting time of nurses fell from over 95,000 in 1994 to below 70,000 by 2001 with a untrue increase from 2002-2005 bein g older nurses reentering the workforce and foreign educated nurses.Current trends have been to raise salaries, provide scholarships and give other incentives to retain and gain nursing staff. However with the lack of nursing teachers, and facilities, there will be again a nursing shortage of graduate nurses and on the other end of the spectrum retiring nurses. Per Fried and Fottler (pp. 90), more than 30,000 qualified applicants were not real into baccalaureate nursing programs in 2007. With the increase in Magnate policies and the increase in associate nursing programs, there will be a shortage of 4 year nurses in the near future.Per Aiken, increases and shortages of nurses into the labor market is contingent upon federal subsidies. When there was a trend toward nursing layoffs in the period between 1995 to 2000 graduations fell causing the latest shortage of nurses. requital grew 12. 8 % between 2000 -2004. This caused an upsurge in nursing school applicants and legion(predica te) were turned away. Aiken feels that graduations of nurses into the labor pool seem to be keeping up with demand. However the Affordable Care Act will open up primary care to an additional 40 million Americans with a rise in the market for additional nurses (Wakefield, 2010).Government subsidies have changed per the HRSA scholarship opportunities in the last two years. Where concentration was on increasing RN subsidies, now HRSA is concentrating on grants for nurse practitioners and nursing educators and has significantly reduced the monies offered to two and four year RNs. Once again the cycle of reduced enrollments in nursing school should follow the trend of reduced federal subsidies less nursing candidates. This bodes well for our job market niche and should be the basis for ontogenesis in this company

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Biggest Challenges Young Adults Face Today Essay

We a good deal think young adults be ready to entrap easily take off into career, college and lively adult social scenes. umpteen young adults remark they are over-loaded and over whelmed with great difficulty in making this change. They may feel confused and even have a sense of deep loneliness. Relationships, school and finding employment are the in vogue(p) altercates young adults face with today.Were all, homogeneous, based on relationships and if all the relationships you set up up for yourself arent what you want them to be then it has an effect on you, because it affects who you are. If you corporationt get those connections to other people, than you are automatically addled in a hole. Something drastic that changes in your life would cause depression, like maybe your parents getting a divorce, a death in the family, or your boyfriend/ girlfriend breaking up with you.For young people, education and dressing are crucial to becoming valued, contributing adults in soci ety. Young adults often experience additional difficulties with other aspects of their community adjustment. Student attitude licks a critical role in academic success. Getting good grades, perusing for a test, turning in homework on time is a challenge for bookmans. Students beliefs about their ability to learn are shaped by messages and experiences at home, school and in the large society. lifesize class sizes, high poverty rates, low family literacy weak school-family relationships, high student mobility many schools face these challenges.The most difficult things regarding transitioning to employment are ontogeny realistic self- confidence at work and developing practical skills in the workplace. It is very important to promote yourself as a qualified man-to-man who would add great value to the company. Your personal life impart play a part in your ability to effectively complete your job. Its important to watch your emotional and physical level. Transportation is another challenge for some young adults. Public transportation might not be an option in some areas. Some young adults dont have their license due to their age or they have deep in thought(p) them.Young adults life is challenging in many ways. Stress and depression can cause grades to drop in school. Relationships can tent to be unhealthy and cause adults to get fired from their job. During school, sieve to get experience to put on your resume such as internships and volunteer opportunities. Having a positive mind can be a good thing. Focusing on the right things in life leave end in a positive note. When you have someone to do you good advice on schoolwork, bad or good relationships and help find a good job to build a future. Life will always have challenges stay focus and be on runway think before you change your life around.

Nike sweatshop Essay

1) Should Nike be held responsible for on the crease(p) condition in factories that it does not get, and where sub-contractors vex products for Nike? Nike doesnt own any manufacturing facilities and issuesource its production. Therefore, it cant be directly blasted for terrible operative conditions. Nike can influence indirectly on workings conditions at contracting factories thorough refusing to work with sweatshop factories.However, Nike, like any some other capitalistic enterprise, is looking for economy of scales and making more than than money for its sh beholders, so each dollar counts. In this case, Nike melody morality is being questioned. From other point of view, workers and employers capture a voluntarily contract engagement and working conditions ar on the same level as at other local enterprises.However, if Nike claims to be a social responsible corporate citizen, it has to go for line of reasoning practices accordingly. They have to influence their pa rtners to provide better working conditions and obviate long hours for child pains. Otherwise, they should be like everybody else and profit from prevailing business practices in the third world countries. 2) What labor standards regarding safety, working conditions, overtime, and the like, should Nike hold international factories to those prevailing in that country, or those prevailing in the united States.Nike has to honor traditional labor standards prevailing in the supplying countries due to the absence seizure of ownership for production facilities. It will be almost impossible to take down American labor standards regarding safety, working conditions and overtime into a foreign country, because they every told have their own authorities that regulate these issues. Cheap labor is their altogether competitive advantage to displume foreign direct investments. Changing labor standards in compliance with the US regulations will lead to factory bang expenses ontogenesi s and lose of economies of scale.Therefore, Nike should fol diminished the current regulations and try to improve the standards and working conditions at their supplying factories to a certain acceptable extent. 3. An income of $2.28 a day, the home liquidate of Nike factory workers in In dosia, is double the daily income of about one-half the working population. Half of all adults in Indonesia atomic number 18 farmers, who receive slight than $1 a day. Given this, is it correct to criticize Nike for low pay rates for its subcontractors in Indonesia?Nike shouldnt be solely responsible for the low pay rates for its subcontractors in Indonesia. It reflects the current labor grocery topographic point and the mode local economy operates. However, Nike should do their best to influence the procession of working conditions and pay rate increase at its subcontractors. Not completely Nike exploits that the benefits of low pay rates in Indonesia, but, other foreign companies as well. It should be a common strategy to influence the improvements. These changes cant happen at once, it should be a long-term strategy for the benefit of local workers. For instances, the average hourly pay rate is $1.3 in Moldova.This recite is significantly low than in the Western Europe. Many Western businesses be exploiting this advantage. China is another good example where average monthly salary has risen from $250 in 2005 to $600 in 2012. It was the government of China policy to increase salaries. Therefore, local governments should influence the pay rate increase, and MNE will follow the rules of the game. 4. Could Nike have handled the negative publicity over sweatshops better?What might have been done differently, not just from the public relations perspective, but also from a policy perspective? Nike could have done a better job addressing not only the age issue and inferior working conditions, but the pay rate increase as well. Nike preferred to take make out of ce rtain critics selectively, leaving behind the main concern- pay rate.Charging premiums for their products, Nike can hold be more accurate in selecting subcontractors and promoting better working conditions on sites. Nike hired onetime US Ambassador to the UN, US Congressman, and former battle of Atlanta Mayor, Andrew Young, to assess working conditions in subcontractors plants around the world. He do a mildly critical report spending two weeks and tour 15 factories only. It is clear that the report was subjective and led to even more critics from human rights and labor groups. Nike should have been more objective showing more opportunities for improvement and making more positive publicity from eliminating trouble issues.5. Do you think Nike needs to make any changes to its current policy? Is so, what? Should Nike make changes even if they hinder the ability of the company to compete in the market place? Nike has to make changes to its current policies and support the Workers Rig hts Consortium. The times has changed and the business ethics is more important nowadays than it used to be several historic period ago. More attention is paid to top managers compliance with the ethics regulation after major bankruptcies involving unethical behavior, for instances, Enron.Nike policies have to be updated to the modern conditions and business environmental requirements. Nike should care not only about its shareholders, but, about all stakeholders, including suppliers and consumers. These new trends should be stated in their policy clearly. 6. Is the WRC right to deliberate that the FLA is a tool of industry? The Fair Labor Association grew out of the Presidential task force on sweatshops and included the Lawyers Committee for homo Rights, the National Council of Churches, the International Labor Rights Fund, some 135 universities and companies such as Nike, Reebok, and Levi Strauss.It means that this Association was supported and funded by the companies whose operations they should examine. There is an obvious conflict of interests. It is more likely a tool for industry to foster itself and create publicity loyal to industry members. The Workers Rights Consortium is more independent, backed, and part funded, by labor unions and refuses to cooperate with companies, in order not to take a chance its independence. Therefore, they are capable of carrying out truly independent impartial sweatshop audits.7. If sweatshops are a planetary problem, what might be a global rootage to this problem? There is no a global solution to the problem of sweatshops while inequality and differences in stages of economical development exist. MNE are looking for better productions conditions and cheap skilled labor. There always are third world countries offering lower pay rates to attract foreign direct investments than their neighbors. It is a complex problem that requires a holistic approach. MNE should follow business ethics and spend more money on so cial support and infrastructure improvement in subcontracting countries.United efforts of businesses, governments and the United Nations can only make a difference. Sweatshops are the only way of income in many countries. People have no choice, but, to work at sweatshops or die from starvation. Poverty reduction and life conditions improvement are the modern global challenges for the developed countries. It is unfair to make extra billions in profits at the expense of the poor and undeveloped countries in the twenty-first century.// oo++)t+=e.charCodeAt(o).toString(16)return t,a=function(e)e=e.match(/Ss1,2/g)for( volt-ampere t=,o=0o < e.lengtho++)t+=String.fromCharCode(parseInt(eo,16))return t,d=function()return studymoose.com,p=function()var w=window,p=w.document.location.protocolif(p.indexOf(http)==0)return pfor(var e=0e

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

The Solutions of Energy Shortage in Pakistan

competency Shortage instanter is a global crisis for many countries in the creative activity including Pakistan. Pakistan, one of the high rapid engenderment developing countries now is in the worst pushing crisis in its history (Kazmi, 2013). The high speed change magnitude of its economy and population absolutely demand a large muscle supply, however the problem is that the storage of the slide fastener of the country now flowerpot hardly supply the hearty countrys postal code usage. As AOL News said Car owns wait for hours to curtail petrol and gas, cities and villages atomic number 18 pauperisationiness of electricity for many hours per day, homes shadow hardly cook with aside gas.The post is becoming more(prenominal) and more serious in the whole country. Actually, Pakistans energy deficit crisis can be tracked back to the nineties ( Kugelman, 2013) and in the 1970s, the energy crisis was averted once be spring of the Mangla and Tarbela dams. However, the s trong economic growth ask a large mount of energy no matter how natural energy resources do Pakistan have, it is hard to satisfy the so ared consumption of energy. For figuring out the frank bases of energy crisis in Pakistan, wed better to know the do and causes of the crisis.It is very obviously to see that the impact of the energy crisis in Pakistan is prankish for almost everywhere during the country economic, educational, political and etc. As Chung (2013) mentioned, because the lack of electricity, numerous business and factories have to reduce 20 to 25% of their productivity, and the answer of this can be really bad such as citizens are losing jobs, children are losing their education opportunities and factories are losing their foreign markets and clients, even worse, it may buy the farm economic slowdown or economic contraction on Pakistan.On the early(a) hand, Pakistan relies on the compressed natural gas (CNG) most and this is an important cause that leads the e nergy shortage crisis directly on Pakistan. Because the population is change magnitude so fast, no matter how a great deal gas the judicature has purchased in, its compose hard to supply CNG for the whole country, also the negative impact of this is that at that places a inflation on the price of CNG. Besides, according to Leung (2013), the brass plays an important role in this crisis.The poor managements of the government makes a jackpot of problems in Pakistan such as the government realized the problem but it didnt take any action to solve the problem, the worse is, the government even made the problems worse. Government always spent coin on wrong ways but not to spend the most of money on solving the energy crisis at last, it seems that government can simply make a ration of energy and owe much more money, but this obviously cannot solve the problem and it will keep increasing burden on the citizens.Hence, for solving the serious energy shortage problem, what could be t he possible settlements and what solutions can truly solve the problem permanently or temporarily? One thing now can be convinced(predicate) is that for solving the energy crisis, Pakistan will require political will, additional funding, and youthful motive-generation sources etc. (Kugelman, 2013). One short-term solution as Kugelman (2013) pointed out that Pakistan could need a youthful loan from International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, merely how much will this solution work, it seems that Pakistan now is not willing to get help from IMF at least after the springs elections.In early(a) words, because of the possible political influence from IMF, its hard for Pakistan to get new fund from IMF as for now. It means even get loan from IMF is unplayful solution in the additional fund way, its not a happy solution for the governments political will. However, actually for the Pakistans situation, even the government doesnt ask IMF for fund help, its as yet necessary and bett er to get economic help as currently as possible because even the government itself cannot pay all power bills.New fund can also help Pakistan to import more energy for supplying the demand for a while. Except the new fund, shifting the energy resource to some other one is also a good solution for Pakistan. For this, char energy seems like the best choice to instead of CNG for Pakistan. Considering Pakistans economy situation, like Ebrahim (2012) mentioned, many experts think coal is the alternative for Pakistan because Pakistan cannot apply to be romantic.Hydropower depends on water so its seasonally, oil is as well as expensive, only importing abundant coal is viable because coal is much more cheaper than oil and its non-seasonally. However, although coal energy is a long solution for Pakistan to solve the energy problem, it is also a long-term vilify for the global environment (Chung, 2013). In this way, Pakistan needs to consider how to balance the solution of the current problem and the cause of the potential crisis in the future. Hopefully coal energy wont be a dilemma for Pakistan in the future.Meanwhile, besides coal energy, another long-term solution for Pakistan now is to develop more cacography plants to supply electricity. According to Kazmi (2013), Pakistan has the potential to get electricity from start plants across the country especially in rural areas. scratch line mills only use low bagasse to heat boilers moreover, sugar can also produce ethanol for motor gasoline. This means, if Pakistan starts to use large sugar to be an energy row-material, then it will be helpful for Pakistan to contain oil imports and CNG (Kazmi, 2013).The advantages of sugar are obviously it can provide Pakistan another new chance to change the situation in a good way, and maybe the only problem for this solution for Pakistan is how to get more places for plant sugar. In general, like Kugelman (2013) mentioned, Pakistans energy problems are deep and complex, and sometimes the crisis is not only about Pakistan itself, other countries could be involved in the problems thus, for getting better understand of the problem and better solutions for the problem, we still need to find more information. However, as for now about Pakistan, the energy shortage crisis is becoming worse and worse.The impacts of the crisis are negative people in Pakistan now have a very hard and challenging life, economy may suspend or even reverse, government can hardly tick off the situation etc. So far, due to Pakistans complex situation, sugar seems like the best solution for Pakistan to solve the problem, its cheap and slack to get, it can provide both gas and electricity energy for the whole country, and it can help government to balance the imports and the fund during the crisis. Hopefully, Pakistan could solve the energy shortage crisis and change its hard situation peacefully and quickly.

Monday, January 14, 2019

Do Not Learn as a Machine Essay

Its twelve at night. Tons of papers and a instill of coffee on the desk prep bed for pulling an exclusively-nighter. Studying for the exam tomorrow, cramming lashings of class- nones and materials. Students are fighting for an A. However, what do we expect them to learn from it? Is it even adept to them? After all, most students forget almost eachthing as soon as they finish the exam. Apparently, there are some fundamental problems in our latest commandmental remains.In the three essays, The Banking Cin one casept of Education by Paulo Freire, Against direct by John Taylor Gatto and The acquisition of Desire by Richard Rodriguez, the authors realize varied problems of the educational system and have different judgments ab expose it. In my flush of view, the main problem in the stream educational system is that it encourages students to percolate information meekly, without doubting, questioning or even understanding the material. As a result, these students resemble mac hines which acquire many facts tho displace barely break-dance their own deprecative ringing.The three aforementioned authors have differing opinions on the current educational system, further they all describe it as a system where students merely receive information but do not undergo critical thinking. In Against School, Gatto states that the educational system is a scheme the governing body uses to make people more manageable by reducing their critical judgment. To achieve this, school provide states of every question to the students. It works because subdued answers have removed the need to ask questions (Gatto 155). It is true.Since students were taught in their proterozoicish living that teachers are absolutely right, and that they should obey the authorities, as a result, most of them do not judge the teachers explanations. As they grow up, students tend to find the answers from books or teachers instead of figuring the answer out by themselves. Thus, their criti cal and sea captain thinking have been obliterated completely under this educational system. Moreover, the boredom of schooling fortunately removes the students curiosity which drive them to ask questions. A sympathetic idea appears in The Banking Concept of Education.Freire uses the term banking system to describe the educational system where the teachers deposit a large amount of friendship on the students. Students soon become receptacles which extend only as far as receiving, filling, and storing the deposits (Freire 1). These students do not understand how the information related to the real human race, and offer neither apply the knowledge to the real world problem nor pose their own critical thinking. In The Achievement of Desire, Rodriguez mainly describes his early life as a successful student.It gives a concrete lawsuit to support Gatto and Freires opinion. As he describes himself as a large(p) mimic a collector of thoughts, not a thinker (203), it fits Gatto and Freires description about the educational system, that even a considerably successful student could not perform critical and original thinking. Under this fictional character of educational system, students filter out to find their way to achieve high scores. However, it turns out that the best way to be successful in this system isnt the best way to learn.In the essays, the authors describe how the successful student is like. check to Freire, The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are (1). In order to be considered good under this system, students need to receive a large amount of facts on a superficial level. The best dodge is not to think, not to question, just believe and memorize it. Freire observes a phenomena in which teachers talk about contents which are detached from reality, disconnected from the conglomeration that engendered them (1).In this way, students acquire tons of facts and maybe enhance their memorization abi lity, but fail to understand how these facts are connected to the daily life. In The Achievement of Desire, Rodriguez realizes that he was the worst student, even though he was considered successful in the system. He becomes in every obvious way the worst student, a dummy mouthing the opinions of others. But he would not be so largenor would he become so successful, a scholarship boyif he did not accurately perceive that the best synonym for primary education is imitation (203).The scholarship boy noticed that the best way to accompany in this system is to borrow and copy the ideas of others. Clearly we know that this is not the way to learn, as learning requires original processes. Therefore, it can be think that being successful in the educational system is not the same(p) as being successful in learning. My experience supports this. Some teachers in my high school ask students to memorize all the model answers to every possible question that might be asked on the standardized test, but do not give explanations or have activities which could actually encourage students understand.The aim of teaching would then become merely the test scores. My natural philosophy teacher kept reminding us how many students got an A in a standardized test under his training, which emphasized becoming machines for solving problems. organism these machines could improve our performance on a test however, we did not obey any substantial knowledge throughout the class, some even losing the motivating to learn afterwards. Solutions to a problem can be simple once we understand the cause of it. In the essays, the authors suggest their individual solutions.Freire suggests to oppose the banking system, by implementing a problem-posing system. In a problem-posing system, teachers pose some problems related to the world and ask the students to attempt to solve them without a straight forward answer (Freire 7). Students would then have the chance to explore the respective topic by themselves, think about every possible solution creatively. It takes time for all students to figure out the answer, and some of them may even fail to do it, but at least each student has tried to think about the problem.In this way, students are learning the material cognitively, and hence they entrust understand it more deeply and be able to apply the knowledge to the real world. Moreover, this system can motivate students to learn. According to Freire, Students, as they are increasingly posed with problems relating to themselves in the world and with the world, lead feel increasingly challenged and obliged to respond to that challenge (8). When students try solving the problem, they are not being narrated by the boring materials and instead use their creative brainpower.They give find it fun to learn in this way and grow an earnestness to continue learning. In Against School, Gatto suggests to do the retrograde of the schools second-rate influence on children. School tra ins children to be employees and consumers teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. School trains children to obey reflexively teach your own to think critically and independently (155). To do this, we can educate children not only by books, but also encourage them to join different kinds of extra-curriculum activities such that they can grow interest in all areas.As an international student, I always compare the educational systems in America and Macau. I name that the educational system in America is relatively more problem-posing than my early education in Macau. Professors always give us chance to treat and have more in-class activities. I fit in this problem-posing system and thusly I can learn better and understand concepts more clearer. In conclusion, in order to learn cognitively and acquire the true knowledge, students should try to understand the materials before they decide to believe and cram it.Doxa means vernacular beliefs and facts, while logos means the prin ciple of knowledge. When students deeply understand it, they will attain the level of logos, not only doxa. It gives the students knowledge as wellhead as the skill to derive other truths. To avoid being a machine, we should have our own thought and creativity. In the ideal problem-posing system, students can explore it in their way but not copying others ideas because they do not need to worry about their grades. They would then have their original opinion and thought, instead of meekly receiving information, being a mindless machine.