Saturday, August 31, 2019
Steinbeck as an author always seemed to have a niche for writing stories that made you think about the importance of life. Respect for life was highlighted in his stories many times, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s the presence of or the lack of. A few stories that involved this were The Pearl, Of Mice and Men and Travels with Charlie. He knew how to tug on peoples heart strings and make them really think about what life truly means to us even after we close the book. The importance of respecting life is evident. Life is something that is beautiful when it is given and sorrow some when its taken away. The beauty of something alive can easily outweigh the beauty of it dead, to some people. To some people the thrill of the kill is all that matters and showing that they are the dominant species. This disrespect of life itself is portrayed in the story Travels with Charlie. Steinbeck, being an older wise man at this time knew the beauty of life and felt that it was better to keep the two coyotes alive than kill them and take the beauty of them away. He respects life greatly because he sees the beauty in it and wants to see that beauty shine on. Also, in The Pearl, he shows his respect for life through Kino wanting to preserve CoyotitoÃ¢â¬â¢s innocence and let him live on to be more than he was himself. On the other hand, some people do not respect life. These people, like CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife in Of Mice and Men, treat people like property, like Crooks. She threatened to lynch him if he ever did anything wrong or got out of place. She does not see the beauty in this mans life and therefore does not treat him with the respect he deserves, instead she puts herself before him metaphorically and treats him like a common slave. In conclusion, Steinbeck shows that the beauty of life can either be respected and appreciated or disrespected and abused. These two viewpoints of life can differ between the person but he shows how respect and admiration can prove the best way to go about a situation. And how hate and disrespect for someone can cause you to think less of them and not see the beauty they possess within.
Friday, August 30, 2019
In the novel Ã¢â¬Åof Mice and MenÃ¢â¬Â show how Steinbeck represents the theme of loneliness Essay
The name of the author of this novel is John Steinbeck. He wrote this novel in 1936 and it was published in 1937. The novel is set in a ranch, which is near the town of Soledad, California. Steinbeck got the name for his novel from a poem by Robert Burns called Ã¢â¬Å"To a mouse, on turning her up in her nest with the plough. At the time this novel was written America was in the period of the Great Depression. This meant people could not find many permanent jobs and so had to travel around the country looking for work. This meant that the workers were sometimes away from their families for a long time and had to travel alone just to try make some money. This was a very bad period in the American history with a high rate of suicide and many people got bankrupt. Usually the workers would stay in a job for a few weeks after which they would travel to find another job, this meant they did not have much time to make friends and so often were very lonely. The main characters in Ã¢â¬Å"of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ are George and Lennie. The story is based around them and their time at the ranch. Some of the other important characters are Slim, Curly, CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and Candy. This novel has many themes in it which include loneliness, the dreams of the workers and also apartheid and sexism. Some of the characters who are lonely are CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife and Crooks. These two are lonely because first of all Crooks is as Black person and at the time Black people did not have the same rights as White people. This meant that Crooks had no one to talk to and usually had to spend time by himself. After a while of spending time completely on his own Crooks thinks that he could be going crazy and he really wants some company. I know this because in chapter four Crooks is talking to Lennie and he say, Ã¢â¬Å"I seen things out here. I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t drunk. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if I was asleep. If some guy was with me, he could tell me I was asleep, anÃ¢â¬â¢ then it would be all right. But I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t know.Ã¢â¬ This shows that Crooks has been on his own for too long, and now he is not even sure of what is real and what is not. Crooks does not have any dreams because he has been at the ranch for a long time and has seen many peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s dreams destroyed. Another person who is lonely is CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. She is lonely because she is a woman and so none of the men really talk to her. Also because she is the only woman on the ranch she has no other women to talk to either. This means she gets very lonely, however she does try talk to the men sometimes, but this has a bad affect. This is because the men think she is some type of whore or a slut who is trying to manipulate or use them in some way. This is unfair on CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife because they do not know her and all she wants is some company. Also CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is from the city and so does not know how to do the ranch work and so she usually has to stay in the house on her own. Candy does not like CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife because he thinks she is a tart. The ranch in the novel is near a town called Soledad, however because there are no buildings or people very close to the ranch itself, people inside only have each other to talk to and because CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is the only female she has no one to talk to and so feels isolated. This is also the case for Crooks because he is the only Black person on the ranch. In the novel, George is a migrant worker who has been traveling around America doing odd jobs with his fellow companion Lennie. George is a small man with small strong hands, dark face and sharp restless eyes. From his description I can see that George is a clever and careful character. Lennie on the other hand is a big man with large pale eyes, and sloping shoulders. His movement had a bear like quality and the way he is described in the novel makes him sound like an animal. George and Lennie travel together because they are friends and have known each other a long time. Also it would be better then traveling alone, because they would have no other companions and so would be lonely. At the start of the novel George and Lennie are in a natural clearing a few miles away from the ranch. They have not got any money because they had to buy bus tickets and had to flee the last town because Lennie got into trouble. George and Lennie have a good friendship but at times it seems that it is a relationship between and father and son. George seems to take the roll of the father and Lennie the son. Even though George complains about Lennie and says that he would be much better off without Lennie, he still needs Lennie for companionship. I know this because in chapter one George says, Ã¢â¬Å"God aÃ¢â¬â¢ mighty, if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job a job anÃ¢â¬â¢ work, anÃ¢â¬â¢ no trouble.Ã¢â¬ This shows that George sometimes does wish he is alone because Lennie is sometimes just too much trouble and he thinks that if he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to look after Lennie then he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have all this money trouble. Although, even though he sometimes wishes that Lennie wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t around he knows that he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t live without him. I know this because when Lennie tells George that he can leave if George wants him to and says he can go live in the hills. George apologiz es to Lennie for shouting at him and tells him to stay with him. George and Lennie both share a dream. Their dream is to own a piece of their own land where they can live and feed themselves. This is the American dream. For George and Lennie the dream makes them think they are different to the other workers. George tells Lennie how most workers make some money then spend it all in some brothel or bar He then tells Lennie how they are different. He tells him how they have each other and they have a dream that they are working towards. For George and Lennie their dream is very important because it is a way they are getting through life. The dream gives them hope, and that is one human feature that always seems to make people believe that everything will be ok and they will be happy. John Steinbeck shows that their dream is an ideal because it is just too perfect. The dream is about George and Lennie having their own land on which they will have rabbits, a cow and grow vegetables. Also the ways Lennie describes the rabbits shows that it is just a fantasy. He says they will be all different colours, like yellow and green. The readers know that this is impossible and yet they sympathize with Lennie because of his child like innocence. In chapter four George is with the rest of the men at a brothel called SusyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Even though they have gone there to get some relief after the long day they have had, it is quite hypocritical of George to be going to this brothel because he says that he is not one of the men who just goes there and spends all his money. Although we are not told if he does spend any money there it is quite likely he does spend some. This means he is being a hypocrite. In chapter four Lennie goes into Crooks room without being invited. In this chapter Lennie is in Crooks control and when Crooks starts telling Lennie that George has left him and wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come back Lennie believes him and then gets angry. Crooks calms him down because Lennie can be very dangerous when he gets angry or upset. After a while Candy comes in and he and Lennie start telling Crooks about their dream and how it will come true. Even though George told them not to tell anyone they tell Crooks anyway because he is Black and they think it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t matter if he knows. Candy is an old man who has been at the ranch for a long time. He has been allowed to stay there because his hand was cut off in one of the machines at the ranch. At the ranch he works as a floor sweeper. Candy is lonely because he is considered just to be an old man and none of the workers really talk to him that much. He did have a dog which was very important to him because he was his only companion and he had owned the dog since it was a puppy, unfortunately for him the dog became too old and so had to be shot. Also it hurt him more because he was not able to shoot him and the dog was shot by someone else. Crooks is lonely because he is a Black person and on the ranch he is the only one. They do not let him stay in the barn with the rest of the workers and so he has no one to talk to. He only has his books and they are very important to him because they are a form of companionship. Crooks and Candy are both lonely because they have no one who they can really talk with and make friends with. In chapter four they have been left behind while the rest go to SusyÃ¢â¬â¢s cathouse because Candy is considered to be too old and Crooks is Black and so cannot go into many places. Candy gets involved in George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dream because after his dog gets shot, Candy over hears George and Lennie talking about it and asks them if he could be apart of it. He says he is willing to pay and pays much more ten both George and Lennie combined. This dream gives Candy new hope and therefore feels livelier. When Crooks first hears about the dream he is quite critical about it but the further he hears about it the more convinced he becomes. However he has seen too many peoples dreams broken and so he says he does not want to be apart of it. Steinbeck shows that without dreams people have no hope and without hope life seems to be worthless. He shows that people need dreams, however farfetched they are, so that they feel they have goals and something to look forward to. Crooks has a more realistic attitude towards dreams, he says in chapter four that dreams get destroyed and it ruins people lives. I can show this because he says, Ã¢â¬Å"anÃ¢â¬â¢ every damn one of Ã¢â¬â¢emÃ¢â¬â¢s got a little piece of land in his head. AnÃ¢â¬â¢ never a god-damn one of Ã¢â¬â¢em ever gets it.Ã¢â¬ This is proof that Crooks is more realistic and he knows how the world works. He knows that people never seem to make their dreams come true. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is quite young and beautiful. She is lonely because she has no one to talk to. She married Curly because she was upset with her mother and so does not really love Curly. She is a trophy wife for Curly. In chapter four she is the one in charge of all the misfits. She knows this and so she behaves quite badly and is mean to Crooks. When Crooks tells her to get out she tells him to be quiet or she will get him hanged. She tells him that all she has to do is scream rape and he will be hanged. This shows that CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife also has an evil side. In this novel Steinbeck is sexist to women. He does not even give CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife a name, and makes her look like a tart. Also most of the other characters think she is a bad woman, George gives her names such as Ã¢â¬Å"jail-baitÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"tartÃ¢â¬ . CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife also has a dream. Her dream is to become a star and become rich and famous. She is quite gullible, we know this because she tells Lennie about a man telling her he would take her to Hollywood and make her a star, but in reality he just wanted her. CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s loneliness leads to her to own death because she is so desperate to talk to someone she starts to talk to Lennie. Lennie has a childlike mind and so does not really understand her and they both talk about two different things, but for CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife just being with someone is good enough. She then lets him stroke her hair and when Lennie does not let go, she starts screaming, this makes Lennie confused and frightened and so he suffocates her. The writer has shown loneliness in this novel through the actions the characters take and the things they say. Some of the similarities between the lonely characters are that, that both Crooks and Candy are treated differently. This leads to them wanting to get involved in George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dream. Also CurlyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife is similar to these two characters because she is a woman, but between the three characters she is the most powerful one. Lennie and Candy are similar because they are both coping with life through their dreams. The writer is saying that loneliness is a curse itself and people react in different ways to it. He is trying to say that humans cannot survive when they are lonely and sometimes can go crazy. The novel Ã¢â¬Å"of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ is a tragedy and the writer shows that George and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s friendship is doomed from the start. He shows that even though they need each other they will never be successful with their dream. With LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s death the dream is over for both George and Candy. Without Lennie George will have no companionship and so he will be the same as the rest of the migrant workers. George shot Lennie because even though Lennie did not realize it, he had committed a crime and taken a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. George knew that Lennie had gone too far this time and knew that he had no other choice. Also he did not want the others to find him because they would have made him suffer and George would not have been able to see that happen. I think that in some ways he did do the right thing because if he let the others find Lennie they would have put him through trials and tortured him, however maybe he should have let the justice system deal with the case instead of taking matters into his own hands. The theme of loneliness in this novel is a very good reflection of the social and economic settings of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. I think this because many of the issues it covers are typical of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, such as racism and sexism.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Business Ethics and Ethical reasoning - Coursework Example The advantage of choosing justice over other methods is that it confirms the pay of all employees to one standard within the organization. Second, advantage is that it brings the employers to answer the unethical practice. 2. GlaxoSmithKline(GSK) has been providing money in different forms to organizations and individuals to promote its products through different channels. Some reports speculate that some of the activities have not been initiated by GSK management but by the sales team to increase commissions. The operations which were encouraged by GSK, however, are part of a scheme to make GSK products a household name. The more GSK products are prescribed and used as the only product; a consumer will psychologically demand only GSK products on a second or third visit. The Company may face fines and lawsuits from the government once it is established that the management was involved in the crime, which can result in discontinuation of production. The public as a result of lawsuits can stop trusting GSK products as any discontinuation can harm the public health at large. Leong, Christl. GlaxoSmithKline Under Investigation for Unethical Commercial Practices. 28 May 2014. 14 July 2014.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Vibration Training - Coursework Example These efforts led to the development of vibration platforms and whole body vibration technology as a solution (History of Whole Body Vibration). Vibration training is a technology and not a device. The device employed is the vibration platform. In whole body vibration training vibration platforms are used and the individual stands, sits, or lies prone on the vibration platform, depending on how and for what are the objectives in the use of the technology. The frequency and the strength of the vibrations can be adjusted for achieving different ends. The individual holds the required position on the vibrating platform, which may be in the standing on one foot or squatting with knees fully bent and so on for a selected period of time, like sixty seconds. Vibration training is thus a simple means for achieving certain desired health parameters in individuals (Whole body vibration training). Evidence from studies of individuals exposed to vibration effects show that there are a host of possible beneficial as well as destructive effects. Summarizing these effects is that every biological system and subsystem of the human body can possibly be affected by vibration input, as is seen from chronic exposure to vibrations at the wrokplace. Given that gravity works in the verticular direction, exercising in the verticular direction causes verticular expansion and contraction of all the major organs in human body, the abdominal cavity and the muscles in the body. These movements can provide the beneficial effect of stimulating growth plates, improving blood circulation, activating the lymph system, eliminating cellulite and enhancing muscle strength. This is the basis for the posit that controlled exposure to vibrations could have beneficial impacts (Mester et al, 1999). The medical use of vibration training is derived from the possibility of vibration training being beneficial in strengthening muscles, enhancing bone
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Animal rights - Essay Example The domesticated animals play important roles in the home environment. However, over the years, animals have been mistreated or even treated to cruelty of a vast nature. From the handling of heavy luggage for donkeys to being killed for food, animals have been used in the society for various reasons. In contrast, human rights have been advocated for by several organization until it has been understood by the society. The rights and privileges of animals have been abused and not advocated for because of the inability for animals to stage demonstration against problems facing them (Owen 23).Ã Man can definitely live without eating flesh foods but the society today has engaged in eating flesh more than the healthier foods provided by nature. The truth is from research conducted plants offer healthier nutrients than the animal proteins. If the research is true the major question remains, Ã¢â¬Å"why do men kill animalsÃ¢â¬ ? The question may raise more questions than answer but my pe rsonal opinion is animals can be left to live their lives and still humanity make ends meet.Response oneThe writer covers issues of treatment and provision of the basic needs of the animal. The author highlights and compares the difference between the pet and the animals kept for food. The main contention area is the treatment differences of the pet and the domesticated animals. In conclusion, the author advocated for equal and even treatment of animals.Animals should be handling well and treated with courtesy.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Concert Report - Assignment Example The other being a concert of eccentric performances in a place by the name of Jamming & Apos,: Java in Vienna. Both of the genres of music were new to me but I had an open mind to the experiences. To deeply understand and enjoy music, we must learn to appreciate other genres as well, since music is intertwined. For this music report, I would like to particularly focus on the musical pieces that intrigued me, and the overall experience (Medearis 134). The classical concert involved a sophisticated performance from a number of instruments, which represented different types of music. The atmosphere of the concert was very intense, probably since the concert was housed in a performance hall that could be approximately to the size of a living room, with the capacity to house a maximum seating of approximately 80 people. The chamber performances had two separate parts, having an intermission of approximately 15 minutes apart. There was a group of artists who sat in a uniform manner by the size of the instruments. This group was known as the Washington Symphony. In addition to this, there was an orchestra that was mainly formed by a group of older individuals, wearing black outfits. The beginning of the concert was colorful and rich as two pieces, by the violin and the cello were featured. The two pieces presented an aspect of magnificent darkness since the steady tempo and continuo bass was maintained in the whole piece. The cello, which was more pronounced, gave most of the melodies. At the time the harmonies seemed very piercing to my ear. For an individual with limited knowledge in musical melodies and harmonies, the unusual combination would have been difficult to digest. I personally interpreted the melodies to be carriers of emotion, which was intercepted with sudden burst of anger from the bass which made the piece exciting. There was also a piece that sounded like a love song, it was slow and smooth. I found
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Article summary - Essay Example of the development possibilities for a well built capital market backed by local investors in small economies despite the substantial growth of their economy. The data pointed out by the article proves the economic status of Slovenia as an ideal example for this scenario. The paper very well confirms the availability of ample infrastructure in Slovenia so as to develop a mature capital market. The author has urged the need of developing an Ã¢â¬Ëequity cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Slovenian market so as to create a promotional economic environment for the growth of a healthy capital market. This in turn needs the liberalization, deregulation and adjustments in the structural issues, supervisory issues and the issues in relation with the implementation of common guidelines in relation with the international capital market. The author demands the capacity building and branding of state owned stakes to develop their status as ones having sellable stocks. Incentives so as to foster financial innovation have to be issued by the government. Further, it has been demanded to develop international collaborations and associations so as to trigger the development of a corporate market. The article also suggests that the regulations on foreign investment and their participation in local trade have to be taken off. These strategies in alignment with administrative reforms have been envisaged by Jochen R Andritzky to promote the development of a capital market. The article is a guideline for individual economies to develop as globally competitive ones. Though the conclusions of the article have been framed in accordance with a case study done on Slovenia, they are applicable for the prospering economies still striving to get into the global scenario. Primarily the international expertise of the author and the organizational profile he owns confirms the credibility of the study. The study has been based on solid scientific investigation strictly based on economic grounds. The paper has well
Saturday, August 24, 2019
To what extent do politics of the WTO, limit (or increase) developing countries' ability to realize the gains from specializat - Assignment Example Using postulates from the theory, it is clear that the best combination of trade at the international front should be guided by profitability analysis. The Theory of Comparative Advantage The theory of comparative advantage states that a party enjoys a margin of superiority in producing services or goods. This means that the party enjoys comparative over another country due the opportunity cost that exists due to lower production cost Chang (2008). Better said, two parties can each enjoy from trade if they produce the same goods or services at relative costs that are not equal. This theory also applies even if one party happens to have absolute advantage over another country as it enjoys the capacity to gain when it trades with another that is less efficient provided that the relative efficiencies are unequal. The law of comparative advantage is based on a number of vital assumptions. One of the main assumptions is that the parties involved incur no transportation costs in their deal ings. It is further assumed that costs do not vary and no party enjoys economies of scale. Furthermore, it is taken for granted that no trade barriers and tariffs apply to the parties in their engagement in trade. The assumption that factors of production are perfectly mobile also applies for comparative advantage to apply. Yet another assumption is that the goods or services being traded are identical or homogeneous. The final assumption is that the parties involved in trade have perfect knowledge of the goods being traded and therefore buyers and sellers are able to tell where the cheapest products exist. The theory of comparative advantage normally applies in international trade, countries being the parties involved. In its perfect sense, the theory elements responsible for the realization of the theory is very difficult to achieve since international trade often involves transportation, tariffs and trade barriers, the immobility of production factors and imperfect knowledge. Acc ording to classical theories related to international trade, countries are bound to gain mutual benefits when they specialize in making goods or producing services with lower opportunity costs. The theory of comparative advantage advocates for free trade and specialization in production rather that pursuit for self sufficiency. The World trade organization has played an important role in the liberation of trade especially beyond national borders Chang (2008). Three major features of the World Trade Organization negotiating environment are the abidance to the most favored nation (MFN) principle, the occurrence of negotiations among few countries, and the extent in times of time of the negotiations with economically significant nations joining the equation on a continuous basis (Bagwell and Staiger, 2001). Under the MFN negotiating environment, there are two major hindrances to multilateral efficiency that come into effect according to Bagwell and Staiger (2001). For one, every market access concession that a country makes to another country automatically is enjoyed by partners who enter the negotiation later. In order to reduce the free-riding potential a nation may end up offering a little to early negotiator so as to maintain bargaining power in latter times. The second hindrance to
Using ICT-enabled feedback to improve student learning in secondary schools in New Zealand - Literature review Example What is Feedback? Feedback is often described as a systematic dialogue between teachers and students. A proper feedback can help both to assess their strategies.To be more precise,for students it is a method to ascertain the effectiveness of their learning strategies. On the other hand, for teachers, it is a method to assess the problems faced by students. As a result, the teachers are able to adapt more student friendly teaching methods A carefully designed classroom lesson attracts more attention from students (Black and William, 1998, pp. 139-148). In many literatures the description coined by Ramprasad (1983, p. 4) Ã¢â¬Å"Feedback is information about the gap between the actual level and the reference level of a system parameter which is used to alter the gap in some wayÃ¢â¬ is used to define feedback. However, many scholars are of the opinion that such definitions of feedback, makes it a complete responsibility of the teachers. On the other hand, an effective feedback require s both the teachers as well as the students to give their serious effort. (Black and William, 1998, pp. 139-148) In 2006 Boston Consultancy Group (BCG), conducted a survey in the primary school of Bellfield in Victoria, Australia. The survey clearly indicated that Feedback in school level balances positive aspects of teaching with room for future improvement. The survey also showed that feedback encourages teachers to build up their confidence. The survey further showed that constructive and properly tailored feedback help teachers to formulate new methodologies to improve learning in their class... The teachers must gain the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence. A feedback, which is very critical by nature, can make students feel incompetent. In feedback, teachers need to highlight the achievements of the students in a realistic yet positive manner. By providing students non-judgmental feedback, the teachers can become their mentor. The greatest fear that students have is the fear of being wrong, and it is the responsibility of teachers to encourage them to come out of their inhibition. (Gager and Berliner, 1991 p. 143, 349) Feedback can be categorized into two category, namely Ã¢â¬Å"FormativeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"SummativeÃ¢â¬ assessment. Formative assessment involves regular feedback throughout the academic year. On the other hand, summative feedback is the assessment done at the end of the academic term. Formative assessment In case of formative assessment, the approach is a combination of formal and informal processes applied by students and teachers for improving the learning expe rience. Formative assessment done by teachers mainly focus on the following points (Heritage and Stigler, 2010, p. 56) The direction in which the student is heading, i.e. the strategy the student is following. The current state of the student The direction the student must take next to make further improvements The priority in formative assessment is to set the learning goals along with the success criteria for each lesson. The feedback help teachers to shape up their curriculum in such a way that the students are able to close the gap between his or her current learning ability and the goal they have set for themselves. The teachers must be aware of certain factors, when they formulate their formative assessment strategies. There are certain factors, which must be
Friday, August 23, 2019
The Gay and Lesbian Movement - Research Paper Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that politically, the gays and lesbians have been given a chance to lead other groups of people as they have been elected in some of the elections were carried out in the United States. These people have been elected as state legislators and as congressmen, and thus they have been able to get into high positions in the country. There are also communities which help in ensuring that the gays and lesbians needs are met. There has also been an establishment of businesses that helps in the making sure that the needs of these people are met and they live well and satisfied. The gays and lesbians have made a mainstream on the media such as television, in the music industry, and have also appeared in films which every other member of the society watches (Rimmerman 2). However, society does not consider gays and lesbians to be vital, and some of the public issues which the society may need to address are not addressed by the peop le who are in this movement. For example, the gays and lesbians are not allowed to carry out some activities such as adopting children, teaching in the public schools, and also taking care of foster children and serving in the public arena such as in the armed forces and as guards. During the early times, the gays and lesbians believed that they would progress if only they involved themselves in the media and had a connection with the public. Therefore, they would protest and fight for their rights and involved in political activities in order to ensure that they get attention from the other members of the public, and thus they believed they would get to progress in all their undertakings as the movement was being established. They did all that they did in order to ensure that they no longer hid from the public, and nether would they be afraid of getting to the public with their status. They would not live in silence any longer and thus would ensure that they have become visible and everyone else knows of their existence (Rimmerman 84). The issue of gay and lesbian movement has been controversial to the social life of the community. This means that there are factors which have to be considered in ensuring that the message of the existence of the movement is received well by the social community. Conflicts exist between the rights of the Christians and the rights of the gays and lesbians (Rimmerman 122). The Christian community in the United States is said to be composed of people who are anti-gay, and thus the two movements cannot come together either socially nor politically to bring out a notion of power. Differences between gay and lesbian, on one hand, and queer, on the other Gays and Lesbians are those people who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex. This means that a man may be sexually attracted to another man or a woman may be sexually attracted to another woman. On the other hand, the word queer explains an individual who is attracted to a nother individual of the same sex, but it does not have to be sexual attraction. Queers can be bisexual meaning that they are not content with the type of relationship that they involve themselves in.Ã
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Explore how Stevenson has presented the character of Mr. Hyde Essay Comment on how the author has created a sense of evil in this character. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson is a novella written in the gothic style, first published in 1886. It is linked to other works written in the same period of time and in the same style, most notably Dracula and The Picture of Dorian Gray. During that period, it was believed that people had doppelgangers, or evil twins; this is how Victorians explained the duality of a person. Duality is a theme greatly explored in the novel; not only the duality of an individual but the duality of Victorian society as a whole. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde demonstrated the fact that many high class citizens, who appeared fine and upstanding, hid dark secrets, especially sexual ones: exactly like Henry Jekyll. Another theme explored in the novella is that of the importance of reputation and class. For example Utterson and Enfield try to avoid gossip and maintain their respectability. Similarly, Utterson tries to preserve Jekylls reputation, even though he senses something is not right. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde has an episodic narrative structure in the fact that it is divided into specific significant events. Mr. Utterson is portrayed as an investigator of sorts, looking for clues and attempting to solve the riddle behind his friends mysterious behavior. Furthermore, the truth is withheld until the end and finally revealed with the deaths of Lanyon and Jekyll in order to heighten the disbelief in his readers. Hydes first introduction to the readers is when he tramples over a young girl. This prejudices the readers impression of him because it depicts him committing an act of cruel violence. In addition, the language used to describe Hyde -specifically similes- adds to the already terrible impression the readers have of him. For example, he is depicted as being like a juggernaut and carrying it offlike Satan. This illustrates that he was like an unstoppable force of evil and frightens and alarms the reader. Victorians would be taken aback by this as they were very religious and believed in Satan. Both the doctor and Mr. Enfield experience the desire to kill him in response to the incident and this would stun readers as they wouldnt expect such a dramatic reaction from what appear initially to be quite calm, rational people. Many characters are unnerved by Hyde but unable to give an exact description. However, most agree that there is something unnatural about his appearance: not easy to de scribe, displeasing and downright detestable. Stevenson has been deliberately vague about Hydes appearance, engaging the readers and allowing them to envision what Hyde looks like individually. As a result, Hyde will look evil to all readers, now and many years from now. In Search for Mr. Hyde Mr. Utterson is distressed at the news that Hyde, a complete stranger, is set to inherit Jekylls fortune in case of his disappearance or unexplained absence. This is a narrative hook Stevenson has used to entice his audience to delve further into the mystery. Additionally, Stevenson has built up trust and a sense of security in Mr. Utterson from the beginning of the novella: somehow loveable and eminently human leading the reader to trust his narrative and respect him. Contrastingly, Stevenson has used language to create a sense of evil in Hyde during Mr. Utterson and Hydes encounter. For instance: Mr. Hyde shrank back with a hissing intake of the breath, illustrating that he is primitive and almost animal-like. That is my name. What do you want? is Hydes reaction to Mr. Utterson addressing him, indicating that Hyde is extremely anti-social and isnt used to communicating with human beings. After his encounter with Hyde he encourages readers to investigate Hyde: there is something more. This creates indistinctness and suspense. Moreover, Stevensons description of Hyde after his encounter with Mr. Utterson emphasizes the sense of evil created previously. Through the repetition of deformed and deformity, he generates a sense of wickedness as during the Victorian era deformity was viewed as something repulsive that should be locked away, hidden from the public eye. Furthermore, Uttersons reactions to Hyde support this: disgust, loathing and fear. Here, Hyde is compared to Satan again: Satans signature upon a face. Victorians would be very shocked by the reference to Satan as to them Satan was the most powerful force of evil on Earth and his signature upon a face would make the person extremely wicked and malevolent. Next, the random act of violence in The Carew Murder Case greatly affects the readers opinion of Hyde. Stevenson has built up the feel of iniquity in Hyde through the maids description of the crime. The verbs and adverbs used are particularly effective. For example, the verbs clubbed and brandished develop a sense of cruelty in Hyde. Whats more, the aural imagery used allows the reader to visualize the crime, accenting it and Hydes brutality. The maid describes Hyde as behaving like a madman and having ape-like fury, which suggests Hyde may not have been in control of his actions and maybe even suffered from a mental health disorder. However, Victorian readers would not have interpreted that in this way, as there was limited knowledge regarding mental health during that time. Rather, it would have just emphasized Hydes malice. Hydes choice of accommodation reflects his character as he dwells in a dingy street with blackguardly surroundings. The reader is supposed to infer that Hyde is as sinister and repulsive as his environment. Also, this reveals that he is low-class and unsociable, as most high-class respected citizens lived in much more genial environments, without ragged children huddled in the doorways. Additionally, Hydes lodgings represent the duality of human nature. The juxtaposition of the outside and inside of the house reflects how divided man is. On the inside there is a good picture hung upon the walls and it is furnished with luxury and good taste and on the outside there is a seedy gin palace and women passing outto have a morning glass, indicating the house was in an area where poor people, drunks and prostitutes lived, an area where Hyde wouldnt stand out or attract attention. Lanyons description of Hyde echoes Hydes previous depictions. Lanyon describes Hyde as seizing, surprising and revolting and that there was an added curiosity as to his originlifeand status, implying that Hyde was repulsive, yet there was something about him which made whoever saw him to want to examine him. This is a hint about Hydes true identity, as at this point of the narrative, readers still werent expected to know that Hyde is actually Jekylls alter ego. Hydes clothes are another hint: they were made of rich and sober fabric but were enormously too large for him. As Jekyll is wealthy he could afford luxurious clothes, and of course they would be too big for Hyde as he is considerably smaller than Jekyll. Lanyon tells of Hyde as having a remarkable combination ofmuscular activity anddebility of constitution, meaning that Hyde was energetic yet appeared fragile and in a poor state of health. On one hand, Jekylls description of Hyde is a summary of all the other characters. Jekyll says that evil was written broadly and plainly on Hydes face and that Hyde carried an imprint of deformity and decay. On the other hand, however, Jekyll is attracted to Hyde: I was conscious of no repugnance, rather of a leap of welcome, revealing that Jekyll, rather than being repulsed by Hyde and fighting the transformation, is magnetized by him and embraced the transformation. Also, with Hyde, Jekyll feels complete as he no longer has to battle with his dark side but can accept it is a part of him: it seemed more express and single. Therefore, the reader is not expected to feel shocked when Jekyll says human beingsare commingled out of good and evil, as Jekyll has just explained that good and evil co-exist in a person and that it is impossible to be whole without both, linking to the theme of duality. All of us are good and evil, but we decide which side to act on. Hydes desires were mostly why Jekyll chose to transform into him. Jekyll doesnt stipulate what these desires were. What was deemed as socially intolerable and undignified in the Victorian era, might not be viewed that way today. For this reason, Stevenson has not specified what Hyde gets up to or the kind of pleasures he fulfils: so that the text is mentally stimulating to readers, be it Victorians or present day readers. Additionally, Stevenson has withheld the details because they probably would have offended a Victorian audience. Nonetheless, this would be different with a modern audience as a modern audience is exposed to much more than a Victorian one. And, the text is more effective without the details as readers are left to guess, which means Hydes secret could be any one of hundreds. Again, Stevenson is being deliberately vague, just as he was with Hydes appearance: making Hydes secret all things to all readers. In conclusion, by not revealing many details about Hyde, Stevenson created a truly evil character, as humans inherently fear the unknown. When the (few) details are revealed to the readers they are extremely unpleasant, with Hyde being deformed, ape-like and repulsive. Still, the real horror in the story is not Hyde. Jekyll, at the start of chapter 10, describes himself as being bornendowed besides with excellent partswith every guarantee of an honourable and distinguished future. Stevenson could have been describing every person in this way, as we are all born expected to be excellent, principled humans, with every guarantee of an honourable and distinguished future. Therefore, in at least one way, everyone can relate to Jekyll. So, the real horror is not Hyde, but rather that every person, good or bad, is a Jekyll and a Hyde.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
My Personal Experience Of Bible Camp- Essay When I meet Jesus at youth summer retreat I experienced my Lord when I prayed with my friends at Bible camp. I didnt know much about prayer or how to do it at that time, but when I saw my friend praying, the enthusiasm and energy for praying arose in my mind and I realized profoundly that Jesus Christ was pierced for my transgression (Isaiah 53:5). I confessed all my sins to him and received Jesus Christ as my Savior. He lifted me out of the slimy pit of sin, out of the mud and mire of spiritual death. It was my first experience of the Lords Love and forgiveness and as a result, I changed the values in my life. After that, I haven t been able to stop preaching the Gospel to my friends and my colleagues, and several friends believed in Jesus Christ through my preaching. In addition, I came to know His limitless love for me during junior high school and decided to surrender my life to God s will. Part Two War We believe that war and blood shed are contrary to the Christian conception of human welfare, and violate the basic principles of universal brotherhood. Therefore, war and blood shed are not compatible with the gospel and spirit of Christ. We also believe that a warless world is the ideal toward which all men and all nations should strive. Such an order is possible if men will follow the way of Him who is the Prince of Peace, and it is the duty of every Christian to promote peace and good will. Christianity supports the spirit of understanding, mutual trust, and cooperation among all the peoples and nations of the world Part Three The Pastor and The Teaching Ministry Most ministries that pastors perform in the church relate to teaching. In preaching, small group work, counseling, and Bible study, pastors duties are to teach Christians just as Jesus did. Jesus nurtured His disciples through His teaching ministry, and one of functions of His preaching and instruction in the Bible was to teach people so that they would know what they did not recognize, understand, and hear before. Jesus Christ, as pastor and teacher, provides the model for all pastors today. From His dual role as pastor and teacher, pastors today derive the challenge to imitate His character and follow Him to be loving and spiritual teachers. Moreover, from His relationship as the teacher with His learners, we pastors can learn His various teaching skills, we can recognize how Jesus treated people in order to form a good relationship between teacher and learners, and we can prepare for becoming spiritual teachers who serve people in the postmodern age. The Position of Pastor and Teacher William Willimon provides insight for pastors ordained to serve the church in the postmodern world. Willimon discusses the roles of the pastor in practice today and investigates the biblical theology of the position of pastor. Willimon emphasizes that pastors need self-reflection in order to recognize the meaning of the role of pastor as teacher that Jesus showed, and they need to equip themselves with various functional and spiritual skills to server the different and unique individuals in our congregations today. In educational practice, the teacher and the learner coexist as an essential unit. Even though the teacher s main role in secular education is to deliver academic skills to a learner who needs to use knowledge in the real world, the most important role of the teacher in Christian education, particularly church education, is to become a spiritual model to lead learners to follow Jesus Christ in Christian faith and love. Good point. In this sense, the role of a pastor as teacher is to undertake the responsibility to lead people to meet God personally, to nurture them to follow Jesus Christ, and to help them live with the Holy Spirit. Willimon mentions that the Bible often emphasizes the importance of the teaching ministry of those who are anointed to deliver God s messages to His people. In the Old Testament, God often entrusted spiritual leaders to teach God s messages to His people. The reason for teaching is that His people did not worship God, because they had no knowledge (Hosea 4:6 and Isaiah 5:13). The New Testament repeatedly indicates the importance of teaching for those who were the apostles, teachers, and pastors called to enlighten people who were ignorant. The authors of the four Gospels and the apostle Paul frequently designate Jesus as a teacher, since Jesus taught people as His usual activity. The main ministry of the apostles was also to teach the people the Gospel of the Kingdom. Willimon claims that teaching was Jesus priority in ministry because, as he says, the first thing Jesus does for them, sensing that they are like sheep without a shepherd, is not feed them, but teach. Sometimes the teaching principles that Jesus used seem to be too simple, and some scholars have doubts whether the teaching methods of Jesus are effective for the growth of spirituality for Christians. Our times and His times are after all totally different in terms of teaching. However, Roy Zuck emphasizes that modern pastors still need to learn the teaching methods of Jesus: The methods Jesus used are as effective today as when he used them. The problems he confronted are similar to those confronted by men in all ages when seeking to impart religious truth. The truths he taught are to be communicated today as well, for we are to teach others to obey everything [he has] commanded (Matt. 28:20). The Teaching Ministry as One of The Major Duties of Pastors. Pastors in the postmodern world need various teaching skills to teach Christians spiritually, since each person today has a unique personality, background, and character. This uniqueness affects how individuals learn and experience Christian faith through church education. However, as Willimon emphasizes, pastors in their teaching have to focus on the Bible and on what Jesus taught. Thus, pastors in their teaching ministry in the church need to concentrate on achieving the goals that the Bible lays out. In my own view, based on theology, my church experience, and my personal background, the teaching ministry of pastors in the church must aim to make Christians more mature in seeking to follow Jesus Christ in their lives. Through the teaching ministry of the Church, Christians learn and practice how to recover the image of God and how to live piously as children of God in the world. They learn to evangelize His good news and to prove His Word in order to serve non-Christians with the love of God. Through the teaching ministry, church members find a spiritual identity as Christians. Through programs of the teaching ministry such as adult Sunday school, seminars and workshops, small groups, discipleship and mentoring, and fellowship events that pastors do, the church can enable Christians to follow our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. The teaching ministry of pastors includes, first of all, all programs and events of the church designed to help Christians grow spiritually. As a pastor and student majoring in Educational Ministry, my own goal for the teaching ministry in the church is to shape Christians spiritually and to equip faithful children of God. This is the purpose of the Lord s church and the vocation of ministers. Normally, through worship services, various Bible study groups, and events such as out-reach, camp, prayer meetings, and fellowship programs, the church performs this main duty for Christians growth and the glory of God. Through the activities of the teaching ministry, Christians can more personally respond to God s calling, grow up with mature faith, find their personal vocation, and struggle to live with a dependence on the guidance of the Holy Spirit. All adult members from new converts to leaders and from newcomers to mature members must participate in the learning activities provided by the teaching ministry for their spiritual growth, since all Christians need more OF God s grace and need to learn from God s Word and reflect the life of Christ as they daily follow Him in their different spiritual and personal environments. Essentially, the role of pastors in the church is to lead Christians to personally meet our Savior Jesus Christ, to know our Almighty God, and to walk with our Counselor the Holy Spirit. Also, based on the relationship with God, Christians can make a loving personal relationship with others. Another important goal of the teaching ministry is to develop members into spiritual leaders as Moses did (Exodus 18:25). It is to share ministers leadership effectively and to use their God-given talents for His kingdom. Making lay leaders is very pivotal work just as Jesus chose and educated disciples for the next generation. The apostles and the apostle Paul also called and nurtured some Christians to proclaim the good news as evangelists and to manage the church with shared responsibility. In making leaders for service in the church, pastors need to pay careful attention to select, oversee, and train members over a long time. Pastors also need to approach Christians from various angles to nurture them, since members are living in many different environments economically, personally, physically, and psychologically. This nurturing process for making leaders is not easy and takes lots of money, but it is the commandment of Jesus (Matthew 28:18-20) and one of the most important duti es within the church. Through pastoral teaching ministries, Christians can naturally be grown to leaders in the church. Making leaders is an important duty of pastors as part of their teaching ministry. The final goal of the teaching ministry by pastors is that of teaching Christians to live with the Holy Spirit in the real world. This goal entails two different emphases but is actually one goal. The first emphasis is to proclaim His Words to unbelievers through a faithful and loving attitude as children of God. Jesus commanded us to love our neighbors as He has loved us (John 13:34). The second emphasis is to serve non-Christians, and it includes the goal of recovering God s order of creation and making peace under His sovereignty. Jesus says that we should be the salt and light of the world and through our goodness should become spiritual messengers of God to introduce our Savior and Lord. These processes are my final goal for the teaching ministry of pastors in the church. I firmly believe that Christians will follow Jesus Christ and find Christian identity through the right teaching of pastors in the church. In sum, the teaching of pastors in the church has various functions in order to shape Christians into mature children of God. Thus, the goal of pastors teaching is to develop the process of becoming Christians who continuously struggle to resemble Jesus Christ, regain God s image, and live with the Holy Spirit. It also means that all Christians must act out His love in their Sitz im Leben as Jesus did. From these considerations, it is clear that the teaching ministry of pastors in the church provides for the growth of Christians in their spiritual relationship with God and others, for leadership training, and for the practice of love.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Examining the Organisational Structure and Culture Abstract In this report I aim to objectively examine the Organisational Structure and Culture by using three different organisations from different sectors within the UK and how it could affect the business. Furthering my report I will analyse the impact of staff behaviour on the three businesses. I will conclude my report by carrying out a detailed analysis on specific job roles within an organisation. I would be using McDonalds, Sainsburys Plc and Sony Corporation as part of my case study. Task 1 Introduction Organisational culture and structure Organisational Culture also known as Corporate Culture comprises the attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values of an organization. According to author Afsaneh Nahavandi, organisation culture has been defined as the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization [Which] control the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization. Every organisation with more than one person needs a structure so that workers have clearly defined roles and are clear about the roles of others. As such, organisational structure is often presented as a chart which clearly identifies how management is organised vertically with layers of hierarchy and horizontally by function, product or division. The chart will make clear who is responsible for what, who is responsible to who and who to go to with problems and queries. There are three main types of organisational structure: tall hierarchical, flat hierarchical and matrix. McDonalds Plc and their structure McDonalds is the worlds largest fast food chain restaurant with over 31,000 outlets in 118 countries and employing over 1.6 million people globally. Out of the 31,000 outlets, 1000 of them are in the U.K. McDonalds serves over 47 million customers daily in the 118 countries they operate in and have a market capitalisation of $60.08bn in the financial year of 2008. 78% of the McDonalds are owned by the franchisees and the remaining 22% are owned by the corporation itself. Structure in simple terms, can be defined as the way things are set out in an organisation. Therefore, all businesses including McDonalds have their own organisational structure which consists of groups and individuals working together to achieve the same aims/objectives of the organisation. Organisations are structured in a variety of ways, dependent upon their objectives and culture. The structure of an organisation will determine the manner in which it operates and its performance. Structure allows the responsibilities for different functions and processes to be clearly allocated to different departments. The wrong organisation structure will reduce the success of the business. As a business expands the spans of control will widen. The higher the level of skill each employee has the more the business will make use of these skills across the organization and hence save costs. Internal factors such as size, product and skills of the workforce also influence the organizational structure. undefined Source: Online http://www.learnmanagement2.com/hierarchical%20structure.htm An example of a hierarchal organisational structure is given above for reference; The figure published according to McDonalds websites tells us that 78% of the stores are franchised; whereas the remaining 22% are owned by the corporation itself. My assumption is McDonalds as a corporation have adopted a hierarchal structure; but each store would be following a different yet similar structure within the framework of the hierarchal structure. All the stores would carry out exactly the same process but the way in which they deliver the service could vary. It would depend on the franchisee on how she/he controls their business; however there are certain aspects which the franchisee cannot alter i.e. the McDonalds logo, shop appearance and etc. As the above diagram shows, the most highest or influential person in any organisation is the Chief Executive officer/director (CEO) who takes all strategic decisions because they are on the top of the hierarchy and below him are his/her subordinates i.e. area regional managers, department managers who then report back to him/he r about the companys progress or any other important issues that needs their attention. However, every staffs responsibility is clearly defined and the business itself seems to be centralised e.g. important decisions being taken by the senior management centrally. Within this structure, the path to promotion is clearly defines i.e. a person will initially start from the bottom e.g. counter sales assistant and then they will have to earn their way up to the top to get a authority. It is considered employees of this type of structure are likely to be loyal to the business. However, franchised stores of McDonalds are likely to have a flatter structure. There is one manager, who is in control of the assistants and employees; who takes all the decisions for that particular store and he/she who is in charge of the main functions, carries them out. But the McDonalds corporation is likely to have a hierarchical structure. McDonalds is a big company with lots of different departments which need to be organized very well, because if the employees arent directed in the right way they wont perform their jobs uniformly. McDonalds culture On the other hand, according to author Afsaneh Nahavandi; organisational culture can be defined as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. set of beliefs, customs, practices and ways of thinking that they have come to share with each other through being and working together. Culture varies greatly between organisations and some business can be warm and friendly whereas some can be hard and unfriendly. McDonalds operates according to four values; quality, service, convenience and value. Part of their organisational culture is the delivery of uniform quality of food and service wherever the branch is located. These are some of the cultures associated with McDonalds; McDonalds place the customer experience at the core of what they do. McDonalds are committed towards their stakeholders. They believe in the McDonalds System. McDonalds operate their business ethically. McDonalds give backs to the community. McDonalds grow their business profitably. McDonalds strive continually to improve. Their mission/vision/aims/objectives of McDonalds will affect the culture of McDonalds to an extent. Initially, McDonalds key objective of serving the customers good quality food links in with their culture (values) which is that McDonald place customer experience at the core of what they do. This will result in repeat business and hence improve the profitability of the business which is another value (culture) of McDonalds. Another key objective of McDonalds is to be a socially responsible company; this has again affected their culture to a great extent. McDonalds gives back to the community via their own set up charity e.g. Ronald McDonalds House charity; however the franchised store have their own decision on it. It is clear that McDonalds investment is carefully considered. This again is reflected in their culture, which shows us that McDonalds are committed towards their shareholders and stakeholders. Another aim of McDonald is to provide customers with outstanding quality and make every customer smile; this is again reflected in their culture (values) as the website informs us that McDonalds strive to improve continually. Therefore, as the company is innovating and continually making improvements, it would satisfy more customers who were maybe previously dissatisfied with a particular aspect. In order for McDonalds to comply with their mission/vision statement identified previously, they would need to set their structures accordingly i.e. as McDonalds want to be their customers favourite dining out restaurant, they have ensured that staff and the management are working together effectively in order to prepare a meal for a customer quickly without any kind of mistake e.g. giving a customer a wrong product. Moreover, from the vision/mission statement of McDonalds it is clear that the companys main focus of attention is the customers and therefore in order to facilitate the demand of customers; this means that McDonalds needs to hire more staff and hence their mission links with the structure. Sainsburys Plc and their structure Sainsburys PLC has implemented the notion of making a clear organisational chart available to all employees and workers throughout the stores. This is the key to the success of the company as the more qualified workers in the store can speak to their subordinates directly. This however is not the case if the subordinates want to communicate with their seniors as they will have to refer to the organisational structure in order to speak to the relevant person. The system is efficient as the workers know who, where to go and seek advice from a member with more control and power of them. Moreover, the system enables employees to communicate with others efficiently and conveniently. An example of this is when an employee within a particular department such as Electronics wants to query something to a supervisor; it is through the organisational chart that the employee will know to communicate with the supervisor or the department manager. Organisational charts within larger companies such as Sainsburys Plc essentially provide its employees with a guide to the organisation and its key contacts. As such the organisation of the business allows all employees to recognise who is responsible for what. This is done for a number of reasons; the chain of command lists all employees and their role within the organisation. By implementing this strategy throughout their store, Sainsburys Plc reduces confusion around the hierarchy of the organisation by informing all employees about their own role, power and authority as well as the role of others and their responsibilities. An example of this is if an employee is unsure about his/her power over any subordinates, they can refer to the organisational chart. Another advantage to having an organisational chart is that everyone who work, liaises or partners with the company is aware of the span of control power, influence or authority an employee has over his/her subordinates. If the person is higher up they could clearly see that they have a wide span of control in a Sainsburys store as it is a flat structure which consists of many workers who have to be controlled by supervisors or managers; who in turn are controlled by their deputies or department managers. An example would be that a supervisor was unsure of how much span of control they have over his/her employees; they would check the structure of the business which would outline their own role and responsibilities In which case will be a lot as a checkout supervisor has a larger responsibility and trust within the checkout team. Although the organisational structure outlines each role and the responsibilities, communication between employees and their superiors can also help in clarifying responsibilities, as power has been delegated by high levels of authority the employee will know how much power they have received and what changes or decisions they can immediately carry out to take effect on thei r subordinates. This method of organisation of the business allows employees to work together effectively. This is because any disputes over power and decision making are brought up the organisation chart can help prevent and resolve issues regarding the power and status of especially higher people in the chain of command. It is through the companys organisational methods that that the success of Sainsburys will reflect how this is effective as all functional areas work within this structure. Using Sainsburys Plc as an example can identify how its employees can challenge and confront their superiors in terms of negotiating the power that each member of the store has. The structure of the organisation will be put to use here as it will clearly display where each person is in terms of accountability and power. This will indefinitely resolves the problem and help them work together and communicate effectively. This also applies to other employees, who can check their position in the hierarchy and their subordinates before confronting and starting disputes. These are some of the ways organisation in a business can allow workers to co operate efficiently. Sainsburys Culture The culture of Sainsburys describes the typical approach within the organisation. It essentially means the organisations universal beliefs, policies and procedures that determine the way the organisation is run. This culture is also reflected in Sainsburys employees and shareholders as well as the companys strategy. As such it is these elements that shape and determine the organisations success and at times its failures. Although a large corporation, Sainsburys much like Tesco, MS and Asda takes shape as a bureaucracy. Much like the above corporations, Sainsburys hierarchical structure and its top-down approach suggests that the company heavily implements the Top Hierarchal Culture. This means that communication is essential in the running of a successful company as each role is defined by the hierarchy up until the bottom of the hierarchy. To ensure that this structure is kept, Sainsburys have invested in ensuring that communication and the structure of the organisation is available to all its employees. An example of this is the centralisation of decisions, policies and roles and responsibilities of each individual belonging to the company. These are often outlines at the beginning of employment contract and often reiterated via email, circulation lists, newsletters etc; all of which are essential methods of communication. Due to the large nature of the organisation, Sainsburys is divided into sub-departments such as accounts, marketing and Communication to Electronics and Production department. It may be easier to visualise Sainsburys as two businesses; one being the top part of the hierarchy entailing more senior positions such as production director which involve the strategic management of the organisation. The other aspect is the wholly retail element, found on the shop floor. In this case one can see that power is hierarchical and often stems from the employees position. This is a primary reason as to why roles are defined via job descriptions; to essentially avoid the breakdown of the hierarchical structure. It is clear that Salisburys works within a bureaucratic culture, unlike the Co-Operative which works on persons culture. An advantage of which is empowering all parties who have connections with the organisation. Sony Corporations culture Sony known for its renowned innovation, technological gadgets and electronics it has created a multibillion, multinational electronic empire with products such as the transistor radio, the Trinitron, the Walk-in and the VTR. All of which have transformed life in the twenty first century. It is Sonys consumer targeted quest for excellence and constant innovation that have made them so successful. However, one must consider the companys recent profit loss as being a result of the constant innovation and production of new electronics as these have taken focus rather than concentrating on profit and loss statements have always been a part of Sony since its beginning days. For every successful product (i.e. transistor radio and Trinitron), RD cost often ran excessively high that they pushed the firm to the verge of bankruptcy. The company managed to bring back its losses by introducing a new culture. For every new product a project was created which was funded by Sony and overlooked by a senior member. This allowed Sony to expand its enterprise whilst allowing new projects authority and most importantly autonomy to manage and control each business unit. It was this new method of management that enabled Sony to create both a wider enterprise as well as a new business culture. Sony Corporations structure As mentioned earlier, the changes to Sonys business structure announced in early 2003 meant that Sonys profit margins were redesigned to maximise the effectiveness of their investment in each business category. In addition, a CFO position was established in each network company which became responsible for the monitoring of each business operation. This meant that all networks operated with a degree of autonomy whilst maintaining close strategic links to Sonys global hub. The result of Sonys business culture established a universal monitoring system within the company and its network companies which allowed Sony to analyse and manage the companys entire business. Task 2 Affects of organisations structure and culture to the business Organisation Structure is a key element in the running of a business as it applies to both the employers and its employees. Its importance also lies in that it gives a clear indication of how information can be shared or passed down within the organisation; in order for this happen there must be a link of communication between the senders and receivers. This is achieved by communication flowing up or down the hierarchy. Having an organisational chart makes this process easier as it clearly shows the hierarchy within the organisation, so that communication can be made more effective as the sender/receiver will be able to control their own communicational methods thus avoiding confusion. This enables the business to make communication more convenient and effective for all staff thus allowing departments to inter-liaise and continue information sharing in an effective manner. These are just a few of the benefits an organisation chart has on the business. On the other hand, according to author Afsaneh Nahavandi; organisational culture is defined as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. set of beliefs, customs, practices and ways of thinking that they have come to share with each other through being and working together. Culture varies greatly between organisations and some business can be warm and friendly whereas some can be hard and unfriendly. These theories are proved constantly in todays businesses. For e.g. the structure Sainsburys have implemented within their organisation, allows each of their departments to work individually to achieve some of its various objectives such as: To provide shareholders with good, sustainable financial returns. (Source: www.j-sainsbury.co.uk) It is clear from this objective that Sainsburys plc is keen about keeping their shareholders happy by providing them with sustainable financial returns on their investment. And due to its structure in place their accounts and finance department is able to deliver this objective by implementing a good financial strategy and doing the job well. Sainsburys plcs decisions in terms of culture and their structure also impacts on the companys business performance to an extent. The tables below demonstrate the level of achievement in sales, underlying operating margin and underlying profits before tax over the last five years. Sales figures of Sainsburys plc between 2005-2010 [%] Like-for-like sales (%) Operating cost margin (%) Underlying operating margin (%) Profit before tax (Ã £m) Underlying profit before tax (Ã £m) (Source: www.j-sainsbury.co.uk) The companys directors explain, Despite year on year of challenging market conditions, Sainsburys has delivered continued strong performance against its targets in 2009/10. The retail sector continues to be one of the most fast-moving and highly competitive in the UK. However, Sainsburys stable and experienced leadership team has consistently achieved growth since 2005. Task 3 Job roles Employees working for any organisation are enlisted to perform a specific role. These roles vary depending on the individuals skills and experiences, as listed below: The task or activity The amount of responsibility The job security The decision they have to make The payment they get The skills, knowledge and qualities they have There are four main types of job roles in a business: Directors: they are responsible for the overall direction of the business Managers: They are responsible for one area of the business for example marketing area Supervisors or team leaders: Has the responsibility to look after a team Staff: They are responsible for carrying out basic functions of the business If you look at an organization chart you will see that the person with the most authority is at the top. Individuals with the least amount of authority are placed at the bottom of the hierarchy; this is often referred to as the chain of command. Specific job roles and their responsibilities Directors The Directors typically create the business plans. Directors sit on the board because they have specialist expertise in a particular line of business, or because they have generalist experience, or sometimes more importantly, good contacts. The Managing director The Managing Director is the figurehead of the organisation. Managers have the job of organising and controlling resources. For example at Mcdonalds the managing director will have to look at the applications that come in and decide who to employ and who not. Senior managers Senior Managers make top level decisions concerning operational strategies. These decisions require detailed analysis and skilled judgement. Middle managers Middle Managers organise and control the resource of an organisation within established guidelines. Junior/supervisory management Junior/supervisory management is usually concerned with short-term supervisory activities making sure the operations are carried out in a nice smooth process and all resources is in place for it to happen. Supervisors Supervisors are quite often the backbone of the organisation. They are people who know how things should be done at ground level. They work with managers to put plans into action at operational level. They manage day-to-day resources including the supervision of staff. Operatives Operatives are at the ground level but their work is still very important. It needs to be carried out with care and precision. E.g. In a supermarket the operatives would be the shelf stackers, checkout operatives and etc Employees Personal attributes and how they affect the business The reason why personal attributes are important to the employee and the business is: Personal presentation: includes the individuals physical presentation, personal hygiene, and presentational skills. In addition to this, communication and ability to work with others are essential requirements for many jobs. It is important for the business because if they have staffs that are taking care about his personal presentation it will make the business look good and also the customers will feel comfortable talking with the staff. For example a customer service advisor must have good personal presentation skills as well as being a good communicator. These types of skills vary depending on the role, the position of the role and the skills of the individual and positive approaches increase on the business sales ultimately. And if they are not smart in these areas the business may even loose customers on that bases resulting in loss of business. Verbal communication skills: these skills are essential to any individual working in customer service, in contact with clients and partners. Having good verbal communicational skills means that the individual has the ability to make him/herself clear and has the ability to coherently vocalise their message. This is important for the employee so that if a customer asks him about information, he will able to answer so the customer understands them and it is also important to the business so that the customer can give good customer feedback. Following instructions: This element is essential to any role which an individual may apply for. It is natural to follow the hierarchal order, even if taking orders may be the case as stated in the individuals employment contract. It is the employers right to take any grievance, disciplinary action against the staff member if she/he refuses to complete a task stated on their contact as this has been agreed both contractually and verbally at the beginning of the employees contract. For example, if every member of staff does not follow what has been asked from them, the business could lose out on precious time and money. Conclusion Organisation Structure is a key element in the running of a business as it applies to both the employers and its employees. Its importance also lies in that it gives a clear indication of how information can be shared or passed down within the organisation; in order for this happen there must be a link of communication between the senders and receivers. This is achieved by communication flowing up or down the hierarchy. Having an organisational chart makes this process easier as it clearly shows the hierarchy within the organisation, so that communication can be made more effective as the sender/receiver will be able to control their own communicational methods thus avoiding confusion. This enables the business to make communication more convenient and effective for all staff thus allowing departments to inter-liaise and continue information sharing in an effective manner. These are just a few of the benefits an organisation chart has on the business. On the other hand, Organisational culture has been defined by Afsaneh Nahavandi as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦. set of beliefs, customs, practices and ways of thinking that they have come to share with each other through being and working together. Culture varies greatly between organisations and some business can be warm and friendly whereas some can be hard and unfriendly. And this is proved over and over again by looking at some of the above case studys and how it this can affect the performance of the business itself. Finally we looked into various job roles within any business and their significance. And we also looked into various personnel attributes of an employee and their significance to the employee himself/herself and their employer too. One of those simple example being If an employee not bother about his personal development then: The employer will not be able to help employee to plan his or her career. The employer will not be able to assess future potential or suitability for promotion. The employer will not be able to identify training and development requirements for that employee. The employer will not be able to assist the employee to create a personal development plan for the next period and set key targets for achievement.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Optimism in Candide Voltaire's Candide uses anti-heroism as an object of mockery against the philosophers of the Enlightenment. Candide, the hero of the novel travels around the world where he encounters many difficulties. During his travels, he sticks to the teaching of his tutor, Doctor Pangloss, believing that "everything is for the best" (3). Voltaire points out the illogicality of this doctrine, "if Columbus had not caught, on an American island, this sickness which attacks the source of generation [...] we should have neither chocolate or cochineal" (8). The sheer stupidity of these illogical conclusions points out Voltaire's problem with most optimists: the illogical degree to which they would carry their doctrine. Voltaire would argue that noses were not designed for spectacles, but rather spectacles were designed for preexisting noses. Pangloss's interpretation of cause and effect is so ignorant as to be comical. While Candide tells an interesting story, it is more important as a satire. Howeve r, this does not prove Voltaire is a pessimist. Ã During the age of Enlightenment, the philosophes believed that reason could be used to explain everything. The philosophes believed that people could make the world a better place to live in. Voltaire is against such optimism. Ian Bell Says "The 'optimist' argument then, was complex and sophisticated, but like all ironists Voltaire chose to simplify it to the extent that it seemed complacent and absurd, and he went on to cast doubt on our chances of ever securing 'eternal happiness'"(1-2). According to Voltaire true happiness can only be experienced in an unreal world. The multitudes of disasters that Candide endures after leaving Eldorado culminate in his eventual abandonment of optimism. Candide loses four of his sheep laden with priceless jewels due to natural causes, and then sees his two remaining sheep stolen, and the local magistrate indifferent to the theft. "Certainly, [says Candide,] if everything goes well, it is in Eldorado and not in the rest of the world" (42). Candide goes a step further, "Oh Pangloss, cried Candide, you have no notion of these abominations! I'm through, I must give up your optimism after all. What's optimism? said Cacambo. Alas, said Candide, it is a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell" (40). Candide's enthusiastic view of life is contrasted with, and challenged by suffering that he endures throughout the book. Hence, Voltaire uses the book to satirize the foolishness of optimism.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
What Are Blogs? When I decided to write about blogs I thought I would use a traditional and simple method of arrangement: what is a blog, where did they come from, what are people doing with them as far as writing instruction goes and then say a bit about what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done with them and why I think they are a promising form of writing pedagogy. But I quickly discovered that people have yet to fully agree on a single definition of a blog. I also discovered an intense amount of hype and gripe. There are those who think the blog will take over the world, and others who think that will be a bad thing. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve no doubt heard these arguments before regarding other online phenomenonÃ¢â¬âthat because blogging requires no technical skill and is free, anyone can instantly publish anything and therefore either A) it will democratize information flow, liberate the repressed, illuminate the shady, discredit the liars, and save the world from SARS and terrorists or B) it will fill peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ s minds with the sort of un-edited, un-checked, un-educated crap that your average person thinks about stuff he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really understand going on in places he canÃ¢â¬â¢t locate on a map. Like you, IÃ¢â¬â¢m guessing, I want neither to leap on this bandwagon nor to snap at its wheels. I just want to figure out what a blog is and how I can use it to help my students learn more about writing. To that end I would like to share my current working definition of a blog, and talk a bit about what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done with them so far and why I think blogging is a good way to teach and talk about writing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m actually more interested in hearing your take on blogs than I am in my own, so I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t ramble on. For my purposes, a blog is a single authored, regularly updated, minimally edited, publicly viewable website consisting of links and commentary presented in reverse chronological order. Blogs function as content filters. Blogs also encourage and facilitate comments from readers and thus offer the opportunity for interactive communication. When defined in this way, blogs are different from similar forms of online writing. An online diary, for example, would have the same chronology and single author but would tend to focus on the life of the writer rather than on websites of interest to the author and her intended audience. What Are Blogs? :: Definiton Internet Blogs Paperes What Are Blogs? When I decided to write about blogs I thought I would use a traditional and simple method of arrangement: what is a blog, where did they come from, what are people doing with them as far as writing instruction goes and then say a bit about what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done with them and why I think they are a promising form of writing pedagogy. But I quickly discovered that people have yet to fully agree on a single definition of a blog. I also discovered an intense amount of hype and gripe. There are those who think the blog will take over the world, and others who think that will be a bad thing. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve no doubt heard these arguments before regarding other online phenomenonÃ¢â¬âthat because blogging requires no technical skill and is free, anyone can instantly publish anything and therefore either A) it will democratize information flow, liberate the repressed, illuminate the shady, discredit the liars, and save the world from SARS and terrorists or B) it will fill peopleÃ¢â¬â¢ s minds with the sort of un-edited, un-checked, un-educated crap that your average person thinks about stuff he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really understand going on in places he canÃ¢â¬â¢t locate on a map. Like you, IÃ¢â¬â¢m guessing, I want neither to leap on this bandwagon nor to snap at its wheels. I just want to figure out what a blog is and how I can use it to help my students learn more about writing. To that end I would like to share my current working definition of a blog, and talk a bit about what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done with them so far and why I think blogging is a good way to teach and talk about writing. IÃ¢â¬â¢m actually more interested in hearing your take on blogs than I am in my own, so I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t ramble on. For my purposes, a blog is a single authored, regularly updated, minimally edited, publicly viewable website consisting of links and commentary presented in reverse chronological order. Blogs function as content filters. Blogs also encourage and facilitate comments from readers and thus offer the opportunity for interactive communication. When defined in this way, blogs are different from similar forms of online writing. An online diary, for example, would have the same chronology and single author but would tend to focus on the life of the writer rather than on websites of interest to the author and her intended audience.
The Hispanic diversity of the United States has been well documented in immigration and population numbers for many years. In 1994, there were 26.4 million Hispanic Americans living in the Continental United States.In 2005 that number had ballooned to over 35 million.Now in 2008 the number is over 45 million people.(US Census 2008) The four main groups of Hispanic citizens are the people from Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico and Central America.Our Hispanic population has given the United States many contributions to politics, economics, family traditions and bilingual advancement in the world. Mexican Americans, probably our best known and documented immigrated citizen to The United States has made great strides in developing our culture and adding Rich history to our country.Economic contributions cannot be overlooked,while being one of the least educated groups and most economic disadvantaged groups Mexican Americans are a key attribute to our economy by continuing to participate In great numbers in the workforce in pursuit of their part of the American dream. Mexican Americans are excellent contributors to politics as well. Cesar Estrada Chavez Founded and led the first successful farm workers' union in U.S. history.This was aimed at fair wages for worker to avoid the poverty he was forced to endure as a young man Federico Pena Was the first Mexican American to head the Department of transportation.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
What is irrational and rational decision making? Well first to understand what each on is individually, I believe that you should know what each word means separately. So according to meriam-webster. com, rational means, Ã¢â¬Å"having reason or understandingÃ¢â¬ (Rational, 2009) while irrational means, Ã¢â¬Å"not endowed with reason or understanding. Ã¢â¬ (Irrational, 2009). Lastly but not least, from the Encarta. msn. com/dictionary, decision making, is Ã¢â¬Å"the process of making choices or reaching conclusions, especially on important political or business matters. Ã¢â¬ So what do all those definitions mean to you? To me, by these definitions, rational decision making is when a person has reason or understanding in reaching a certain conclusion and just the opposite of that is irrational decision making, when a person is not able to come to a conclusion without reason or understanding. The differences are clearly stated, such as not having any reasons. versus having a reason for a conclusion For example, if the tiles are muddy, the most rational thing to do is to mop the tiles. Your reason is that the tiles are muddy. I think that an irrational thing for a person to do is to sweep the tiles. If there is mud on tiles, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not the same as having sand on the tiles. The mud is wet therefore you would use a mop instead of a broom. With the broom, you could pick up dry particles such as sand. It would just make more sense, rather than using a broom to sweep mud when all you will be doing is pushing around something that is wet. Decision that was Once Reviewed to be Ã¢â¬Å"RationalÃ¢â¬ but Now is Ã¢â¬Å"IrrationalÃ¢â¬ Back in the early 1700 and 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, arranged marriages were part of the traditional and cultural beliefs that many families went through. Though arranged marriages happened in the United States, it was most likely to take place in the Southern States. Now, in the present day, though arranged marriages still happen in some cultures around the world, it is an irrational decision. (Decision, 2008) Explanation why it Would be Considered Ã¢â¬Å"IrrationalÃ¢â¬ Today It was considered to be rational back then because it Ã¢â¬Å"was the thought to keep the blood lineage of an aristocratic family line to stay pure. Ã¢â¬ In order to make marriage agreements, there is sometimes certain business arrangements that were involved. Things such as, land, money, property, and or social status were used in order to make a marriage, other than what we presently do, which is to fall in love with a person. Now, in the present, most have the ability to choose the person they want to marry. (Arranged, n. d. ) Decision Theory Used I think the decision theory that was used in the original decision making is Satisficing. Ã¢â¬Å"The theory postulates that decision makers compare these calculations and choose the course of action that maximizes expected utility. (Plous, 1993). In the earlier years, parents of children, made the decision to arrange their future marriages in hopes of receiving or being able to make a deal with another family. They chose a path in their lives which would then satisfy their needs and wants. When doing so, their choice is far from being actually favorable. Instead of being able to marry someone you love and of your choice, back then, there were no opinions whether or not a person wanted to marry another. It was like you were born in order for the option of your parents to be able to make a deal with another family, just to get something out of having a child. Because arranged marriage is what was ideal for certain cultures, it turned into a custom that children soon taught their children and so on. Just because you were taught and brought up learning something, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that itÃ¢â¬â¢s always favorable for both you and your parents. To your parents, it could mean getting money, or being richer in a way, and to you, it could mean having nothing at all, no option. You are just put in a situation where you, as a child had no say in. References Arranged Marriage. (n. d. ). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. youth information. com/Templates/Internal. sp? NodeID=90221 Decision Making. (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://encarta. msn. com/ dictionary_1861688906/decision-making. html Irrational. (2009). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. merriamwebster. com/dictionary/irrational Rational. (2009). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. merriamwebster. com/dictionary /rational Plous, S. (1993). The psychology of judgment & decision making, New York, McGraw Hill The History of Arranged Marriages in America. (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/787875/the_history_of_arranged
Friday, August 16, 2019
As we discussed earlier in this chapter, some benefits are required by law. This requirement adds to the cost of compensating employees. Organizations looking for ways to control staffing costs may look for ways to structure the workforce so as to minimize the expense of benefits. They may require overtime rather than adding new employee, hire part-time rather than full-time workers(because part-time employees generally receive much smaller benefits packages),and use independent contractors rather than hire employees. Some of these choices are limited by legal equirements, however. For example ,the Fair Labor Standards Act requires overtime pay for nonexempt workers, as discussed in chapter 11. Also,the Internal Revenue Service strictly limits the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"independent contractors,Ã¢â¬Å" so that employees cannot avoid legal obligations by classifying workers as self-employed when the organization receives the benefits of a permanent employee . Other legal requirements involve tax treatment of benefits ,antidiscrimination laws, and accounting for benefits. Tax treatment of benefits A modern, flexible benefit plan provides a number of potential tax advantages to employees and employers. Employees A flexible benefit plan allows employees to choose to swap some of their existing benefits or purchase benefits from a menu of options. Payments in excess of the employees spending allowance are normally collected via a gross salary adjustment. If employees exchange salary for tax exempt benefits (pensions, life cover, childcare vouchers, mobile phones, etc. ), they do not pay tax or National Insurance on the amount exchanged. This gives a basic rate tax payer earning less than the National Insurance (NI) Upper Earnings Limit (UEL) a saving of 33% compared to receiving the money as salary. For example, an employee that exchanges ? 200 per month of their salary for childcare vouchers and additional pension payments will save ? 792 in tax and NI compared to taking the money as salary. Even if the benefits are not tax exempt, employees can still exchange salary for employer provided benefits and, whilst they will be charged income tax, they save NI as their salaries have been reduced by the value of the benefit. This gives employees earning under the UEL an 11% saving. Employers Employers participating in a flexible benefit plan do not pay employerÃ¢â¬â¢s NI on payments on payments to exempt benefits. If these payments have been exchanged from salary by employees then the employer will save 12. 8% employers NI on the amounts. For example, an employee that exchanges ? 200 per month of their salary for childcare vouchers and additional pension payments will deliver an annual NI saving to the employer of ? 307. Antidiscrimination LawsÃ Legal treatment of men and woman includes equal access to benefits, so the organization may not use the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s gender as the basic for providing more limited benefits. That is the rationale for the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, which requires that employers treat pregnancy or childbirth, the employee needs time off for conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth, the employee would receive whatever disability benefits the organization offers to employees who take disability leave for other reasons. Another area of concern in the treatment of male and female employees is pension benefits. On average, woman live longer than men, so on average, pension benefits for female employees are more expensive (because the organization pays the pension longer), other things being equal. Some organizations have used this difference as a basis for requiring that female employees contribute more than male employees as a basis for requiring that female employees contribute more than male employees to defined benefit plans. The Supreme Court in 1978 determined that such a requirement is illegal. According to the Supreme Court, the law is intended to protect individuals, and when women are considered on an individual basis ( not as averages ), not every woman outlives every man. Age discrimination is also relevant to benefits policies. Two major issues have received attention under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and amendments. First, employers must take care not to discriminate against workers over age 40 in providing pay or benefits. For example, employers may not set an age at which retirement benefits stop growing as a way to pressure older workers to retire. Also, early retirement incentive programs need to meet certain standards. The programs may not coerce employees to retire, they must provide accurate information about the options available, and they must give employees enough time to make a decision. In effect, employees must really have a choice about whether they retire. When employers offer early retirement, they often ask employees to sign waivers saying they will not pursue claims under the ADEA. The Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990 set guidelines for using these waivers. The waivers must be voluntary and understandable to the employee and employer , and they must spell out the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s rights under the ADEA. Also , in exchange for signing the waiver, the employee must receive Ã¢â¬Å"compensationÃ¢â¬ that is , greater benefits than he or she would otherwise receive upon retirement. The employer inform employee that they may consult a lawyer before signing, and employee must have time to make a decision about signing-21 days before signing plus 7 days afterward in which they can revoke the agreement. The Americans with Disabilities Act imposes requirements related to health insurance. Under the ADA, employees with disabilities must have Ã¢â¬Å"equal access to whatever health insurance coverage the employer provides other employees. Ã¢â¬Å"Even so, the terms and conditions of health insurance may be based on risk factors -as long as the employer does not use this basis as a way to escape offering health insurance to someone with a disability. From the standpoint of avoiding legal challenges, an employer who has risk-based insurance and then hires an employee with a disability is in a stronger position than an employer who switches to a risk-based policy after hiring a disabled employee. Accounting Requirements CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ financial statement must meet the many requirements of the Financial Accounting standards Board ( FASB) . These accounting requirements are intended to ensure that financial statements are a true picture of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial status and that outsiders, including potential lenders and investors , can understand and compare financial statements . Under FASB standards, employers must set aside the funds they expect to need for benefits to be paid after retirement, rather than funding those benefits on a pay-as-you-go basis. On financial statement, those funds must appear as future cost obligations. For companies with substantial retirement benefits, reporting those benefits as future cost obligations greatly lowers income each year. Along with rising benefits costs. This reporting requirement has encouraged many companies to scale benefits to retirees. Summarize the regulation affecting how employers design and administer benefits program. Employers must provide the benefits that are required by law, and they may not improperly classify employees as Ã¢â¬Å"independent contractorsÃ¢â¬ to avoid paying benefits. Tax treatment of qualified plans is favorable, so organizations need to learn the requirements for setting up benefits as qualified plans-for example, ensuring that pension plans do not discriminate in favor of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s highly compensated employees. Employers may not use employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ gender as the basis for discriminating against anyone, as in pension benefits on the basis that women as a group may live longer. Nor may employers discriminate against workers over age 40 in providing pay or benefits, such as pressuring older workers to retire by limiting retirement benefits When employers offer early retirement, they must meet the requirements of the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act of 1990. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers must give disabled employees equal access to health insurance. To meet the requirements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board, employers must set aside the funds they expect to need for retirement benefits ahead of time, rather than funding the benefits on a pay-as-you-go basis