Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Thomas Hobbes And The State Of Nature - 1387 Words

In the previous chapters of the book, Thomas Hobbes describes the state of nature in which men, driven by appetites and aversions, are constantly in a state of competition and conflict with one another. Because there are limited resources like food and shelter and people have a desire for the same end, there is no peace or unity in society. Every man must fend for himself in this individualistic, power struggle. The combination of finite resources, mistrust of other men, and equality of power in the state of nature, an unending state of conflict arises in which the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short (Hobbes, 125 sect.9).† Hobbes argues that although the state of nature is a turbulent and miserable condition, human nature also provides the solution to escape this dilemma. As rational beings, humans can see that war against each other not only does not satisfy their interests but also causes them to live in continuous fear. Therefore, all can inherently reason and recognize the need for practical rules or laws which Hobbes calls the laws of nature. These laws or principles direct people to seek peace by relinquishing their â€Å"right to all things (Hobbes, 128 sect 1),† for the benefit and security of all. The â€Å"right to all things† or the right of nature is the freedom every man possesses to do anything for their own survival. The laws of nature require men to lay down their right of nature to treat people how they would want to be treated. In other words,Show MoreRelatedThe State Of Nature By Thomas Hobbes2160 Words   |  9 PagesMichael Swain Paper 2 PS 171 (1) The state of nature as Thomas Hobbes claims is violent, dangerous and solitary. In a state of nature mankind is subjected to constant fear of death and it essentially runs every aspect of mans life. Yet a human is a rational being and there is a drive to get rid of this fear, one of the rights that Hobbes brings up is the right of self preservation and the fact that a man must not bring harm to himself. Hobbes discusses how natural rights are different than naturalRead MoreThomas Hobbes And The State Of Nature1727 Words   |  7 Pagesphilosophers the notion of the State of Nature, a concept used to describe the hypothetical conditions of human life before the development of societies, is important in determining political societies, or the governmental structures that composed these. However, many philosophers have different notions of the State of Nature. In this essay I am going to use the writings of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean-Jacque Rousseau to explain how their not ions of the State of Nature shape the way they envisionRead MoreThe State Of Nature By Thomas Hobbes3347 Words   |  14 Pagestime men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man.†1 Here Thomas Hobbes portrays the state of nature; in which life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.2 He then proposes a social contract where people of the state enter into a commonwealth governed by an absolute power. Through this social contract, the people give up their right to â€Å"everything† to the sovereign in exchange for securityRead MoreThe State of Nature: Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury1691 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay, I will present three reasons as to why the absolute authority of the sovereign in Hobbes’s state of nature and social contract is justified. The three reasons Hobbes uses are: the argument from contract, the argument from authorisati on and the argument from weakness of mixed or divided sovereignty. Firstly, I shall explain Hobbes’s understanding of human nature and the natural condition of humanity which causes the emergence of the social contract. I shall then analyse each argumentRead MoreJohn Thomas Hobbes And The State Of Nature1162 Words   |  5 PagesOpposite to Augustine, Thomas Hobbes believes that the laws set what is wrong and without laws there would be no right or wrong. In Hobbes book Leviathan, argues government is an artificial part of life. Without government, we would be in the â€Å"state of nature†. In the state of nature, we are in a condition of war. Hobbes argues that in the condition of war â€Å"every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be unjust. The notions of right and wrong, justice and injustice, haveRead MoreThomas Hobbes State of Nature Essay1152 Words   |  5 Pagesbeginning, there was a darker side to the preservation of life. Man lived a life of kill or be killed, without any regard for other than his own. Life was solitary, poor, brutish and short. This barbaric and primitive state is what Thomas Hobbes believed to be the State of Nature. Practical reason dictates that when threatened you either act, give up your property, or anticipate for a sign of weakness to act. This means that all have a right to everything so long as it can be attained. People cannotRead MoreState of Nature and Freedom: Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes1424 Words   |  6 PagesState of Nature and Freedom In the Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes places limits on the freedom of individuals in the social contract, as well as individuals in the state of nature. Hobbes writes that in the state nature, â€Å"the liberty each man hath to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature; doing anything which, in his own judgement and reason, he shall conceive to be the aptest means there unto† (ch. 14,  ¶1). An individual’s will is only free when there is no extraneousRead MoreThomas Hobbes State of Nature in Leviathan Essay847 Words   |  4 PagesAccording to the view Thomas Hobbes presents within the selected passaged in the Leviathan, we live in a narcissistic society where man’s condition is primarily driven by ego and where the achievement of personal goals is deemed paramount. Within the State of Nature that is, outside of civil society we have a right to all things ‘even to one another’s body’, and there would be no agree d authority to ensure the moral grounds of our decisions. Therefore since there are no restrictions and no sharedRead MoreThomas Hobbes State of Nature in Leviathan Essay1433 Words   |  6 Pagestheories that grew from them. However, in Thomas Hobbes Leviathan we see a departure from this inequality. The argument of people being equal and the state of man that he develops from that belief are central not only to his own theory but to the world of political science today. It is his examination of people being equal, followed by the state of nature and war, and finally his look at various laws of nature that lead a natural path to his political solution. Hobbes assertion that all people are equalRead MoreThe State Of Nature By Thomas Hobbes And Jean Jacques Rousseau1800 Words   |  8 Pagesquestion whether war is a product of Man s nature or an outcome of nurture has been a source of intellectual debate. In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries each of the political philosophers, Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau took different stances regarding this issue in their deduction of the state of nature; a concept describing people s lives before the existence of civilized societies and laws. Thomas Hobbes imagines a state of nature where each person is naturally fully free

Sunday, May 17, 2020

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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Literature and Communities in “Shiloh” by Bobbie Ann...

I chose to write about the story â€Å"Shiloh† by Bobbie Ann Mason, â€Å"The Lesson† by Toni Cade Bambara and Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes. I chose these works because all of them are about values, morals, beliefs and custom culture. The story â€Å"Shiloh† is about a community / couple who discover that they had different values, morals and beliefs; â€Å"The Lesson† by Toni Cade Bambara is about a teacher who tries to facilitate the youth in her community and Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes questions one’s values and offer suggestions for the effects of delaying values. Is it right to dislike or disrespect others because of lack of knowledge, lack of interests or differences in values, morals, beliefs or culture? While I believe everyone is†¦show more content†¦Leroy, a formal trucker, was injured in an accident and possibly can no longer drive his big truck. As a result, he is home most all of time. He is not accustoming to being home and Norma Jean is not accustoming to him being home all the time. This sudden change causes her to feel awkward. Norma Jean accustom to going to work at Rexall, a drugstore and unannounced visits from her mother Mabel Beasley to criticize her housekeeping abilities. Ever since Leroy injured his leg in the accident he takes physical therapy; the physical therapy prompts Norma Jean to build up her pectorals by lifting dumbbells. One day Leroy realized in all the days he been on the road he never noticed how much things have changed including Norma Jean and his marriage. While Leroy reminisce on the things that he rarely get an opportunity to notice Norma Jean strikes up a casual conversation about work. Norma Jeans said, â€Å"the three stages of complexion are: creams, toners and moisturizers.† Leroy is a formal truck driver. He is illiterate about cosmetics but he can relate to other petroleum products like: axle grease, and diesel fuels. Although from different perspectives Norma Jean and Leroy can relate, appreciate and perceive pleasures of petroleum products. I think the author uses literature to communicate how Norma Jeans and Leroy make a connection while viewing things differently. Next, he

Bacterial Disease - 6531 Words

Bacterial diseases: Introduction Bacterial diseases include any type of illness or disease caused by bacteria, a type of microbe. Microbes are tiny organisms that cannot be seen without a microscope and include viruses, fungi, and some parasites as well as bacteria. The vast majority of bacteria do not cause disease, and many bacteria are actually helpful and even necessary to good health. Millions of bacteria normally live on the skin and in the intestines and can also be found on the genitalia. Bacterial diseases result when the harmful bacteria get into an area of the body that is normally sterile, such as the bladder, or when they crowd out the helpful bacteria in places such as the intestines. Harmful bacteria are called pathogenic†¦show more content†¦Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the bodys defenses being compromised by the primary disease.Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body. Primary Cause of Leprosy The primary cause of Leprosy is the result: * of transmission from another person under rare circumstances, such as immunocompromised people or during surgery with contaminated surgical tools, or according to rare circumstances as noted from reputable sources. Mycobacterium leprae Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis are the causative agents of leprosy. M. lepromatosis is a relatively newly identified mycobacterium isolated from a fatal case of diffuse lepromatous leprosy in 2008.[2][3] An intracellular, acid-fast bacterium, M. leprae is aerobic and rod-shaped, and is surrounded by the waxy cell membrane coating characteristic of Mycobacterium species.[35] Due to extensive loss of genes necessary for independent growth, M. leprae and M. lepromatosis are obligate pathogens, andunculturable in the laboratory, a factor that leads toShow MoreRelatedThe Causative Bacterial Agent For Lyme Disease1002 Words   |  5 PagesBorrelia burgdorferi, the causative bacterial agent for Lyme Disease, has persisted for thousands of years. Recently, scientists have found genetic remains of the bacteria from a mummy dating back 5,300 years (National Geographic, 2011). However, Borrelia burgdorferi was not classified and identified as the putative source for Lyme Disease until the early 1980’s. After mysterious and untreatable symptoms appeared in children and adults of the city of Lyme, Connecticut, the goal for many clinicalRead MoreCholera Is An Infectious Bacterial Disease Of The Small Intestine Essay2063 Words   |  9 PagesCholera is an infectious bacterial disease of the small intestine. This bacterium has spread through the world covering about 50 countries that came about through 7 pandemics. This disease is a worldwide public health concern affecting 3-5 million people each year, killing 120,000. Before, it was thought that cholera spread through a sort of fog known as a miasma however now we know the whole mechanism for the cholera toxin. It was discovered that cholera is transmitted through fecal-oral transmissionRead MoreLyme disease, a common illness prevalent in the United States and Canada, is a bacterial infection1900 Words   |  8 PagesLyme disease, a common illness prevalent in the United States and Canada, is a bacterial infection caused by the bite of a â€Å"deer tick† (WebMD, 2012). A â€Å"deer tick† or Ixodes dammini, frequ ently carries the bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi which causes Lyme disease (American Journal of Public Health, 1992). â€Å"Deer ticks† infected with this disease spread the bacteria through a bite which allows it to enter the blood stream of the host. Patients with Lyme disease often have a history of tick exposure,Read MoreTuberculosis : An Infectious Bacterial Disease1541 Words   |  7 PagesTuberculosis is a very known disease worldwide. Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease illustrated by the expansion of the tubercles that are in the tissue, mainly in the lungs. This disease is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is a rod shaped bacterium. Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. It reached epidemic proportions in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, earning the sobriquet, Captain Among these Men of DeathRead MoreThe Bacterial Strain Responsible For Causing The New Disease Using Techniques203 1 Words   |  9 Pagesinfectious disease caused by a new strain of bacteria that has acquired multiple resistance plasmids from other bacterial strains, restriction digest is performed on bacterial DNA samples isolated from patients stricken with the disease and on five plasmid samples using PstI and EcoRI. Agarose gel electrophoresis was executed for the six samples and the bands were compared and analyzed. The purpose of this experiment is to identify the bacterial strain responsible for causing the new disease using techniquesRead MoreEffective Dental Health And Prevention Of Gum Disease, Gingivitis, Bacterial Carries, Cavities, And Periodontal Disease1646 Words   |  7 Pageswith the control and prevention of gum disease, gingivitis, bacterial carries, cavities, and periodontal disease (PD). Alternatively, signs of poor oral health can be seen with the accumulation of bacterial pathogens in the area between the tooth and gingiva, known as the gingival sulcus (see Figure 1). PD is a severe condition due to its chronic inflammatory nature that leads to tooth decay and eventual tooth loss. The pathogenesis of PD involves bacterial invasion of the gingival sulcus, whichRead MoreLab Report On Bacterial Growth1749 Words   |  7 PagesThis experiment is about bacterial growth. We will demonstrate a bacterial growth curve using a closed system. Bacterial growth usually takes up to 12-24 hours to get an accurate result so we will be monitoring this growth between two classes. We also used different methods to determine bacterial growth as well as a few different calculations. One way of receiving data is by using a spectrophotometer where we will record the absorption at a given time to create the bacterial growth curve. We also usedRead MoreBacterial Vaginosis ( Bv )1614 Words   |  7 PagesBacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a medical condition that is not widely known or understood about by either the public or the medical field. I state this bluntly because I suffer from Bacterial Vaginosis, rather I suffer from reoccurring Bacterial Vaginosis. Generally, women who have an infection caused by BV are prescribed a gel medicine and within 5 days they no longer have the infection. However, there is a small percentage of woman who have BV reoccur after treatment, for some the reoccurrenceRead MoreBacterial Vaginosis : An Opportunistic Pathogen1897 Words   |  8 Pagespredominantly known to cause bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial vaginosis is a dysbiosis in women that is caused by an absence of lactobacilli and including an overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other bacterial species (Vick et al., 2014). BV can cause many risks in women with this infection that include inflammatory disease, STIs, and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth (Vick et al., 2014). A group of researchers investigating the role of G. vaginalis in bacterial vaginosis on mouse modelRead MoreTuberculosis ( Tb ) Is A Bacterial Infection Disease Caused By The Organism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Essay1551 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection disease caused by the organism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb is an airborne transmission disease, which is spread by the inhalation of small droplet from the infected individual with pulmonary (lung) TB to a non-infected individual. TB has different stages of infections but the major one are active and latent stage. Normally tuberculosis stays dormant inside the granuloma in the host without causing any illness but in 10% in cases

Kurt vonneguts who am i this t Essay Example For Students

Kurt vonneguts who am i this t Essay Growing up we learn the importance of many different things. Of all these things, we have learned that being accepted into society, forming friendships, and loving someone are very important to us. In Kurt Vonnegut’s short story, â€Å"Who Am I This Time?†, we see through the experiences of Helene Shaw that by shutting ourselves off from others around us we can miss out on some of the most important things in life. Many things are important to us, one of these is being accepted by our society. We all hate to be the outsider or the new kid, because we feel alone and secluded . In â€Å"Who Am I This Time?†, Helene Shaw’s job kept her moving to a different town every eight weeks. She became very cold to her surroundings in order to ease the transition from place to place, thus easing the sense of not belonging to the society around her. When she was invited to join the Mask and Wig Club, she was very surprised and excited to have been included into the community. This gave her a feeling of belonging and acceptance. Another thing that is important to us is forming friendships with others. The brief time spent in each town made it hard for Helen to get to know others. She seemed to slip into her own â€Å"protective bottle†, moving from place to place almost mechanically, making itharder for people to get to know her. By joining the Mask and Wig Club, in North Crawford, she was given the opportunity to open up to others and meet new people, thus making many friends. We can see that by emerging from her protective shell, it was easier for her to get to know the people around her and for them to get to know her as well. Among the things we have learned to hold important in our lives, is loving someone. In the story, Helen Shaw shut herself off from others so much that when she did meet someone nice she would feel as if she couldn’t touch that person, no matter how hard she tried. The only people she had ever allowed herself to love were in dreams or movies. Once she joined the play in North Crawford, she emerged from her protective bottle and allowed herself to fall in love with Harry Nash, her co-star. She had never experienced being in love before and it was very exciting for her. If she had never emerged from herprotective shell and opened her heart, she may have never experienced love. From the experiences of Helene Shaw in â€Å"Who Am I This Time?†, we see that it is important for us to not shut ourselves off from the people and world around us. By making ourselves open to new things and experiences we will not miss out on the important things in life.

Finding Forrester Essay Example For Students

Finding Forrester Essay Khalia Milton Mrs. Clark English II CB 31 August 2010 Lessons Learned from Finding Forrester In the book Finding Forrester, written by James W. Ellison, there are many thoughts ideas of great importance to many individuals. Each person finds out that you can learn anything from anyone, no matter whether they are negative of positive influences to them. There are some individuals that value pride and swagger while some sought the virtues of conceitedness. Jamal Wallace, William Forrester, and Professor Robert Crawford learn the virtues of life, stereotyping, and integrity. Jamal Wallace is just another teenage African American male resembling all of his other friends in every way†¦ except for one. What most individual do not know is that Jamal is extraordinarily intelligent. Jamal also loves to read and write. Jamal’s lessons are learned in opulence with a man named William Forrester. Jamal does not only become a better writer, but he also learns the goodness to his integrity. Jamal shows his integrity to Forrester by not telling anyone about his new and long lost acquaintance. In the end, Jamal’s value laid in his integrity in many profound ways. William Forrester felt that people should just leave him alone and let his life pass him by. That was, until the day he met Jamal Wallace. Jamal teaches William the values of life that he is missing. Aside from Jamal wanting to learn more from Forrester, William will not allow it. Jamal teaches Forrester how to live his life to the fullest extent, and to never look back. After all of Jamal’s hard work, William finally came out of the comfort of his home, after so many years, and met civilization. Professor Robert Crawford is a bitter and malignant individual that is easily angered when he is being challenged. He wants to win every battle he comes across to ease his self-consciousness. Professor Crawford is an English teacher at Mailor-Callow, a school Jamal is chosen to attend. The professor is ascertained that Jamal is just attending because of his undoubted savvy to play basketball. What Professor Crawford does not know is that Jamal has an undeniable deftness of reading and writing, and because of that Crawford accuses Jamal of plagiarism. Jamal knows in his heart that he is an extraordinary writer, and he want others to know about it also. The stereotyping that Crawford does is despicable. He does not seem to understand why Jamal is so good in the things that he does. He does not care what others think because all he thinks about is oneself. In the end, even though Crawford does not give up, Jamal keeps his head up high and does not give up either. William Forrester, Jamal Wallace, and Professor Crawford adapted to the attributes of life, stereotyping, and integrity. In the end, all of the individuals learn what they can from others, and that is what they value the most. Ive learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel. -Maya Angelou

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Katherine Chopin Has A Different Opinion Of Love, Marriage, Than Most

Katherine Chopin has a different opinion of love, marriage, than most writers of her day. In her writing she indicates to her readers that marriage, though built on a foundation of love can not contain passion. Love is considered a feeling that inspires passion, and romance. It continues on throughout the marriage, but the passion and romance are lost somewhere in the struggles of married life. This loss can also occur in the task of raising children, causing a sort of neglect for the love of one's life. Passion is what inspires an individual to do anything. Chopin it seems is saying that this is an impossibility in marriage in the since of love or sexual relationship. Passion however can be found outside the marriage with other sexual partners. It can also be found in other areas such as in "The Story of an Hour." The main character in this story exemplifies this truth by the statement made after she got over the shock of her husband's death, "Free, free, free!" Her passion came from the realization that she was once again free to do as she wished. Marriage it seems is considered somewhat sacred even though it was almost as if it was acceptable for extramarital relations to take place in Chopin's stories. She seems to think this act of breaking the holy vows of marriage was a justifiable act.